Black willow (generic name)

treats Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Lower back pain, and Headache
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Attribution

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Heather Boon, BScPhm, PhD (University of Toronto); Cynthia Dacey, PharmD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Jessica Clubb, PharmD (Northeastern University); Molly Davis, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Antoinette Edmondson, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Mary McGarry, RPh (University of Kansas); Son Le, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); William Nguyen, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Anabela Santos, PharmD (Northeastern University); Susanne Schadde, MD; Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital), Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Baker S, Thomas PS. Herbal medicine precipitating massive haemolysis. Lancet 5-2-1987;1(8540):1039-1040.

Biegert C, Wagner I, Ludtke R, et al. Efficacy and safety of willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials. J.Rheumatol. 2004;31(11):2121-2130.

Chrubasik S, Künzel O, Model A, et al. Assalix® vs. Vioxx® for low back pain - a randomised open controlled study. 8th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care, 6th - 8th December 2001 2001.

Chrubasik S, Eisenberg E, Balan E, et al. Treatment of low back pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study. Am J Med 2000;109(1):9-14.

Chrubasik S, Kunzel O, Black A, et al. Potential economic impact of using a proprietary willow bark extract in outpatient treatment of low back pain: an open non-randomized study. Phytomedicine 2001;8(4):241-251.

Chrubasik S, Kunzel O, Model A, et al. Treatment of low back pain with a herbal or synthetic anti-rheumatic: a randomized controlled study. Willow bark extract for low back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001;40(12):1388-1393.

Edwards JE, Oldman A, Smith L, et al. Single dose oral aspirin for acute pain. Cochrane Library 2002;1.

Eisenberg E, Chrubasik S, Balan E, et al. Willow bark extract for low back pain: a randomised double-blind study. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2002;7(1):91-92.

Ernst E, Chrubasik S. Phyto-anti-inflammatories. A systematic review of randomized, placebo- controlled, double-blind trials. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000;26(1):13-27, vii.

Gagnier JJ, van Tulder M, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev 2006;(2):CD004504.

Hyson MI. Anticephalgic photoprotective premedicated mask. A report of a successful double-blind placebo-controlled study of a new treatment for headaches with associated frontalis pain and photophobia. Headache 1998;38:475-477.

Little CV, Parsons T, Logan S. Herbal therapy for treating osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Library 2002;1.

Marson P, Pasero G. [The Italian contributions to the history of salicylates]. Reumatismo. 2006;58(1):66-75.

Schmid B, Ludtke R, Selbmann HK, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: randomized placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial. Phytother Res 2001;15(4):344-350.

Schmid B, Ludtke R, Selbmann HK, et al. [Effectiveness and tolerance of standardized willow bark extract in arthrosis patients. Randomized, placebo controlled double-blind study]. Z Rheumatol 2000;59(5):314-320.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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