Black willow (generic name)
treats Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Lower back pain, and Headache
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TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Analgesic (pain reliever), ankylosing spondylitis (arthritis of the spine), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet, antipyretic (fever reducer), antiseptic, antiviral, cancer, colds, colorectal cancer, connective tissue disorders, coronary artery disease prevention, diabetes, fever, gout (foot inflammation), headache, inflammation, joint inflammation, labor pain, leukemia, malaria, menstrual cramps, myocardial infarction (heart attack), sore throat, sprains, tendonitis, toothache, warts.
Adults (18 years and older):
The German Commission E monograph (BGA, Commission E) recommends doses of willow bark extract of 60-120 milligrams of total salicin daily. Clinical studies have used 120-240 milligrams willow bark extract (Assalix®) for four weeks to treat lower back pain. For osteoarthritis pain, 1,360-2,160 milligrams willow bark extract containing 240 milligrams of salicin daily for two weeks has been found effective.
Children (younger than 18 years):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for willow bark in children. Due to the potential for Reye's syndrome from salicylates, children with influenza, varicella (chickenpox), or any suspected viral infection should avoid willow bark.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to aspirin, willow bark (Salix species), or any of its constituents, including salicylates. Symptoms of allergy may include swollen eyes, pruritus (itching), eczema, anaphylaxis, cough, hoarseness, and dysphonia (abnormal voice).
Side Effects and Warnings
Willow bark extract has been reported to cause various gastrointestinal problems, headaches, and allergic reactions. Plants containing salicylates have a very bitter taste, so willow bark tea may be unpalatable (unpleasant) for most patients, particularly for children.
Side effects of willow bark may include blood pressure instability, edema (swelling), rash, Hypertriglyceridemia (an excess of triglycerides in the blood), diarrhea, heartburn, vomiting, and dyspepsia (upset stomach). Willow bark may also lead to hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), which may precipitate an attack of gout in susceptible patients. Willow bark may cause hepatic dysfunction, dizziness, fatigue, swollen eyes, bronchospam, papillary necrosis or headaches.
Although not well studied in humans, combination products containing willow may cause acute weakness, hematemesis (blood in the vomit), melena (black stools), abdominal pain, pale mucous membranes, and panhypoproteinemia (low levels of protein in the blood), indicating severe gastrointestinal bleeding.
The salicylates present in willow bark may also impair platelet function resulting in an increased bleeding time. However, daily consumption of salicis cortex extract is thought to affect platelet aggregation to a far lesser extent than acetylsalicylate. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Willow bark is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Salicylates are listed as a pregnancy category D; there is positive evidence of human fetal risk with use. Salicylates in breast milk may cause rash in breastfed babies.