saw palmetto (generic name)
- Auto Immune Conditions
- Bladder & Kidney Health
- Brain & Nervous System
- Care Transitions
- Dental Health
- Emotional Health
- Eye Health
- Falls Prevention
- Financial Planning
- General Safety
- Health Care Basics
- Healthy Living
- Hearing Loss
- Heart Health
- High Blood Pressure
- Life Transitions
- Lung Health
- Men's Health
- Nutrition & Weight Management
- Pain Management
- Preventive Health
- Sexual Health
- Stomach & Digestive Health
- Stress & Anxiety
- Women's Health
TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Acne, aphrodisiac, asthma, bladder inflammation, breast feeding, breast enlargement or reduction, bronchitis, cancer, catarrh, cough, cystitis, diabetes, diarrhea, digestive aid, diuretic, dysentery, Epstein-Barr virus, excess hair growth, expectorant, high blood pressure, hormone imbalances (estrogen or testosterone), immune stimulation, impotence, indigestion, inflammation, laryngitis, menstrual pain, migraine headache, muscle or intestinal spasms, ovarian cysts, performance enhancement, polycystic ovarian syndrome, postnasal drip, reproductive organ problems, sedation, sexual vigor, sore throat, sperm production, testicular atrophy, upper respiratory tract infection, uterine or vaginal disorders.
Adults (18 years and older)
For enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy), a dose of 320 milligrams daily, in one dose or two divided doses (80% to 90% liposterolic content), has been used in numerous studies. Reports suggest that 160 milligrams once daily may be as effective as twice daily.
Traditional or other suggested doses that are less studied include: 1 to 2 grams of ground, dried, or whole berries daily; 2 to 4 milliliters of tincture (1:4) three times daily; 1 to 2 milliliters fluid extract of berry pulp (1:1) three times daily; or tea (2 teaspoons dried berry with 24 ounces water, simmered slowly until liquid is reduced by half) taken as 4 ounces three times daily. Teas prepared from saw palmetto berries are potentially not as effective because the active ingredients may not dissolve in water. Some experts believe that a preparation called lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR) may cause fewer side effects.
Children (younger than 18 years)
Not enough information is available to recommend the use of saw palmetto in children.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Few allergic symptoms have been reported with saw palmetto. A study of people taking the combination product PC-SPES® (no longer commercially available), which includes saw palmetto and seven other herbs, reports that three out of 70 people developed allergic reactions. In one case, the reaction included throat swelling and difficulty breathing.
Side Effects and Warnings
Few severe side effects of saw palmetto are noted in the published scientific literature. The most common complaints involve the stomach and intestines, and include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, bad breath, constipation, and diarrhea. Stomach upset caused by saw palmetto may be reduced by taking it with food. Some reports suggest that there may be less abdominal discomfort with the preparation lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR). A small number of reports describe ulcers or liver damage and yellowing of the skin (jaundice), but the role of saw palmetto is not clear in these cases. Similarly, reports of headache, dizziness, insomnia, depression, breathing difficulties, muscle pain, high blood pressure, chest pain, abnormal heart rhythm, and heart disease have been reported, but are not clearly caused by saw palmetto. People with health conditions involving the stomach, liver, heart, or lungs should use caution.
Caution is advised in people scheduled to undergo some surgeries or dental work, who have bleeding disorders, or who are taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Some men using saw palmetto report difficulty with erections, testicular discomfort, breast tenderness or enlargement, and changes in sexual desire. Saw palmetto may have effects on the body's response to the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone, but no specific effect has been well demonstrated in humans. Men or women taking hormonal medications (such as finasteride/Proscar®/Propecia® or birth control pills) or who have hormone-sensitive conditions should use caution. Tinctures may contain high levels of alcohol and should be avoided when driving or operating heavy machinery.
In theory, PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels may be artificially lowered by saw palmetto, based on a proposed mechanism of action of saw palmetto (inhibition of 5-α-reductase). Therefore, there may be a delay in diagnosis of prostate cancer or interference with following PSA levels during treatment or monitoring in men with known prostate cancer.
The combination product PC-SPES®, which contains saw palmetto and seven other herbs, has been found to contain prescription drugs including warfarin, a blood thinner. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning not to use PC-SPES® for this reason, and it is no longer commercially available.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Because of possible hormonal activity, saw palmetto extract is not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Many tinctures contain high levels of alcohol and should be avoided during pregnancy.