ABNOBAviscum®, Abnovaviscum Quercus (AQ), all-heal, American mistletoe, Australian mistletoe, avuscumine, bird's lime, birdlime mistletoe, devil's fuge, Drudenfuss, Eurixor®, folia visci, galactoside-specfic lectin, golden bough, Helixor®, herbe de qui (French), hexenbesen, Iscador QuFrF, Iscador® Qu spezial, Isorel®, lectine standard, Leimmistel, Lektinol®, Lignum crusis (Latin), Mistelsenker, Mistlekraut (German), Mistletein, mistletoe of the appletree (Malus), mistletoe of the fir (Abies), mistletoe of the pine (Pinus), mistletoe extract PS76A2, mistletoe lectin (ML), mistrel, ML-1, mystyldene, Phoradendron leucarpum, Phoradendron serotinum (Raf.), Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh.) Nuttal, Phoradendron macrophyllum, Phoradendron tomentosum (DC) (American mistletoe), Plenosol®, PS76A2, SyvimanN® (mistletoe and comfey combination), Stripites Visci, Tallo de muerdago, VaQuFrF, Vischio (Italian), Visci, Visci albi folia, Visci albi fructus, Visci albi herba, Visci albi stipites, viscum, Viscum album Loranthaceae (family), Viscum album coloratum (Korean mistletoe), Viscus album quercus frischsaft [Qu FrF], Viscum abietis, Viscum austriacum, Viscum fraxini-2, viscumin, Vogelmistel, Vysorel®, white mistletoe.
Once considered a sacred herb in Celtic tradition, mistletoe has been used for centuries for conditions as diverse as high blood pressure, epilepsy, exhaustion, anxiety, arthritis, vertigo (dizziness), and degenerative inflammation of the joints.
Beginning in the early 20th Century, mistletoe came into practice in Europe as an anti-cancer therapy and this remains a source of great popular interest. For example, in Norway, mistletoe has been considered a "non-proven therapy" or NPT but has been used as a popular method for healing.
In the last 50 years, many laboratory, animal, and human studies have been conducted on potential anti-cancer effects thought to be caused by immuno-stimulatory effects of mistletoe.
The most promising potential use is as a cancer therapy, but there is still insufficient clinical evidence to consider it a proven cancer therapy. Toxic effects seem to be rare, but have been reported. The National Cancer Institute monograph "Mistletoe Extracts" provides a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary and overview of the use of mistletoe as a treatment for cancer, indicating that: [a] in animal studies mixed results have been obtained using mistletoe extracts for slowing tumor growth; [b] well designed clinical trials using mistletoe or its components have not been sufficient to prove efficacy in the treatment of human cancer(s); [c] mistletoe plants and berries are toxic to humans and their extracts are not sold in the United States.
Mistletoe is not commercially available in the United States, but two U.S. investigators currently have Investigational New Drug approval (IND) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to study mistletoe.
The German Commission E Monographs list mistletoe as a treatment for degenerative inflammation of the joints and as palliative therapy for malignant tumors.
Two major types of mistletoe, European and American, contain very similar proteins and are reputed to have different uses. European mistletoe is believed to reduce blood pressure and act as an antispasmodic and calmative agent, while American mistletoe is believed to simulate smooth muscles, increase blood pressure, and trigger uterine and intestinal contractions. However, there is little research to substantiate any of these claims.
One retrospective case study documented potential benefits of mistletoe extract injection in the management of arthritis. Further research is needed before recommending for or against the use of mistletoe in the treatment of this condition, for which other more proven treatments are available.
Mistletoe is one of the most widely used unconventional cancer treatments in Europe. Extracts have been studied for many types of human cancers, including bladder, breast, cervical, CNS, colorectal, head and neck, liver, lung, lymphatic, ovarian, and kidney cancers, as well as melanoma and leukemia. However, mistletoe has not been proven to be effective for any one type of cancer. Larger, well-designed studies are needed before mistletoe can be recommended for cancer patients.
In a preliminary description in 1997, some patients achieved complete elimination of the virus after treatment withViscum albumalthough these studies were not well designed. A small exploratory trial investigated the effects of mistletoe on liver function, reduction of viral load and inflammation, and maintenance of quality of life by the immunomodulatory and/or cytotoxic actions of mistletoe extracts but little effect was seen. Larger, well-designed clinical trials are needed to resolve this conflicting data.
Treatment of HIV patients with mistletoe has been done in Europe since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic based on proposed immunomodulatory effects. Treatment seems to be tolerable with minimal side effects reported. Mistletoe may assist in inhibiting progression but not all mistletoe preparations have shown equal effects. Further study is needed before a recommendation can be made.
Respiratory disease (recurrent):
Studies of Iscador® (conducted by the same authors) document improved clinical symptoms and markers of immune function in children with recurrent respiratory disease (RRD) exposed to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against mistletoe therapy for RDD in general.
Traditionally, tea has been made with mistletoe leaves, hawthorn leaves and flowers, and lemon balm leaves in equal parts. Two cups daily has been prepared by infusing 2 teaspoons of the mixture for 5-10 minutes. Cold water infusions, dried aqueous extracts, and fluid extracts (1:1 in 25% alcohol) have been taken by mouth.
Mistletoe has been studied in multiple injectable regimens (intravenous, subcutaneous, intrapleural) and given by a healthcare provider in a controlled setting. Sometimes therapy includes an induction phase and a maintenance phase. Mistletoe should only be given by a qualified healthcare professional. No standard dose can be recommended at this time. Further research is needed as there are many potential side effects and interactions.
Mistletoe has been studied in children for respiratory infections. Further research is needed before a recommendation can be made.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy/hypersensitivity to mistletoe or to any of its constituents. A life-threatening allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, occurred after injections of mistletoe.
Mistletoe is contraindicated in patients with protein hypersensitivity and/or chronic progressive infections (e.g. tuberculosis). Avoid use of mistletoe in patients with acute, highly febrile, inflammatory disease.
Most clinical trials were performed with unfractionated extracts, which contain numerous components, and it is difficult to ascribe adverse effects to any component of the mistletoe extracts. Most of the injected administrations of mistletoe may be accompanied by mild manifestations of similar side effects, most of them transient.
The most common reactions reported are erythema (reddening of the skin) and hyperemia (increased blood in an organ). Use of Iscador-M® has resulted in grade 3-4 toxicities (e.g. anorexia, general malaise, depressive moods, fever, and swelling at the site of injection). Other side effects observed have included drug related fever and pain at the site of injection. No drug-related discontinuation or toxic deaths occurred.
Avoid the use of mistletoe with cardiovascular disease, as many adverse effects are possible.
Avoid the use of mistletoe in active/uncontrolled hyperthyroid patients. The manufacturer of Isorel®, Novipharm, notes that mistletoe may additionally activate the patient's already accelerated metabolism and cause over-stimulation, thus worsening the patient's status. Also use cautiously in diabetics as insulin levels may be altered.
Congested intestine, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, nausea, and vomiting have been reported after mistletoe use. Moderate to mild flu-like symptoms, transient exacerbation of gingivitis, and fever were observed in some patients with subcutaneous administration of mistletoe preparations. Hepatitis has been reported due to ingestion of herbal tablets containing mistletoe and other plant extracts. Elevations of liver enzymes have been reported with high doses of mistletoe.
High urinary frequency/nocturia has been observed. Coma, delirium, fatigue, hallucinations, headaches, pain (generalized, bone, joint), abnormal blood cell counts, pancreas, and kidney damage have been reported along with seizures and sleeplessness. In one clinical study, muscle contracture and muscular pain were reported. Ascites, slowed heart rates, cardiac arrest, dehydration, and high or low blood pressure have also been reported.
Use cautiously in glaucoma patients or in those on cholinergics. Mydriasis and myosis/myalgia has been reported in clinical study after mistletoe administration. One report exists of eye irritation after the ingestion of mistletoe.
Avoid use of mistletoe in pregnancy and breastfeeding due to the potential uterine stimulant activity of mistletoe.