Artichoke (generic name)

treats Alcohol-induced hangover, Antioxidant, Dyspepsia, Irritable bowel syndrome, Choleretic, and Lipid-lowering
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Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Allergies, anemia, antifungal, arthritis, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), bitter tonic, cholelithiasis (stops bile flow), constipation, cystitis (bladder inflammation), diuretic, eczema, emesis (vomiting), gout (foot inflammation), hepatoprotection (liver protection), jaundice, nausea, nephrolithiasis/ urolithiasis (kidney stones), nephrosclerosis (kidney disease), probiotic, peripheral edema, pruritis (severe itching), rheumatic diseases, snakebite.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for artichoke. A typical dosage of standardized artichoke extract is 320-1,800 milligrams daily for six weeks. The expert panel German Commission E recommends 6 grams of the dried herb or its equivalent daily, usually divided into three doses.

Also, 3-8 milliliters of 1:2 liquid extract daily is often recommended in clinical practice, and up to 10 milliliters of pressed juice from fresh leaves and flower buds of the artichoke has been used in clinical trials. The German Commission E has recommended 6 milliliters of tincture (1:5 grams per milliliter) given three times daily.

Doses of globe artichoke containing 250-750 milligrams of cynarin daily, or dried artichoke extract 1,800-1,900 milligrams daily, have been used in clinical trials. However, it is not clear that these are optimal doses.

Doses in the range of 4-9 grams of dried leaves daily are often recommended in clinical practice. The German Commission E has recommended 0.5 gram of a 12:1 (w/w) dried extract given as a single daily dose.

Children (under 18 years old)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for artichoke in children, and use is not recommended.

Safety

DISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

Allergies

Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), its constituents, or members of the Asteraceae or Compositae family, including chrysanthemums, daisies, marigolds, ragweed, and arnica, due to possible cross-reactivity. Symptoms of allergy may include worsening of asthma, skin rash, anaphylactic shock, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), cough, and chest tightness. While rare, individuals with a known inulin allergy should avoid artichokes and artichoke extracts.

Side Effects and Warnings

Artichoke is likely safe when taken by mouth for short periods of time. The adverse effects associated with artichoke are generally mild and include gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there have been reports of kidney failure and/or toxicity from the use of artichoke leaves. Use cautiously in patients with kidney disease.

Contact dermatitis (rash) and contact urticaria have been noted after application to the skin, with symptoms spontaneously subsiding hours or days after exposure.

Mild flatulence (gas), diarrhea, hunger, redness in the face, increased bile secretion, and nausea have been reported. Use cautiously in patients with cholelithiasis (gallstones) or biliary/bile duct obstruction.

Artichoke extract (Cynarex®) may increase the risk of bleeding, although causality is unclear. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

Dyspnea (difficulty breathing), cough, chest tightness, and a severe asthma exacerbation may occur. Severe anaphylactic shock in response to artichoke inulin as an ingredient in commercially available products has also been reported. Individuals with a noted sensitivity to artichokes should consume inulin with caution. While rare, individuals with a known inulin allergy should avoid artichokes and artichoke extracts.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

Artichoke is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available sufficient evidence.

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