(generic name)

treats Multiple myeloma and Hepatitis B
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Interactions with Drugs

Two toxic deaths, both attributable to neutropenia and sepsis, were reported in a phase II trial studying spirogermanium in combination with 5-fluorouracil. Significant toxicity has occurred and caution is advised.

Ge-132 (germanium sesquioxide) may enhance morphine analgesia in humans following both oral and intraperitoneal injection. Caution is advised.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

Insufficient available evidence.


This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Ethan Basch, M.Sc (Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Heather Boon, BScPhm, PhD (University of Toronto); Mary Giles, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Dana A. Hackman, BS (Northeastern University); David Kiefer, MD (Bastyr University, University of Washington); Cathy DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Lisa Scully, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Kristopher Swinney, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy - Worcester); Isabell Sylesky, PharmD (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Shannon Welch, PharmD (Northeastern University).


DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Asaka T, Nitta E, Makifuchi T, et al. Germanium intoxication with sensory ataxia. J.Neurol.Sci. 1995;130(2):220-223.

Gerber GB, Leonard A. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of germanium compounds. Mutat.Res. 1997;387(3):141-146.

Hirayama C, Suzuki H, Ito M, et al. Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38(6):525-532.

Ishiwata Y, Yokochi S, Hashimoto H, et al. Protection against concanavalin A-induced murine liver injury by the organic germanium compound, propagermanium. Scand.J Immunol. 1998;48(6):605-614.

Kaplan BJ, Andrus GM, Parish WW. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(2):345-348.

Kaplan BJ, Parish WW, Andrus GM, et al. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: I. Chemistry and anticancer properties. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(2):337-344.

Kuwabara M, Ohba S, Yukawa M. Effect of germanium, poly-trans-[2-carboxyethyl] germasesquioxane on natural killer (NK) activity in dogs. J Vet.Med.Sci. 2002;64(8):719-721.

Long QC, Zeng GX, Zhao XL. Pharmacokinetics of germanium after po beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide in 24 Chinese volunteers. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1996;17(5):415-418.

Luck BE, Mann H, Melzer H, et al. Renal and other organ failure caused by germanium intoxication. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 1999;14(10):2464-2468.

Mainwaring MG, Poor C, Zander DS, et al. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest 2000;117(2):591-593.

Ming X, Yin H, Zhu Z. [Effect of dietary selenium and germanium on the precancerous lesion in rat glandular stomach induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine]. Zhonghua Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 1996;34(4):221-223.

Shamir M, Sprung CL. [Fatal multiple organ system dysfunction associated with germanium metal used in complementary therapy]. Harefuah 11-16-1997;133(10):446-7, 502.

Tao SH, Bolger PM. Hazard assessment of germanium supplements. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 1997;25(3):211-219.

Tsutsumi Y, Tanaka J, Kanamori H, et al. Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur.J Haematol. 2004;73(6):397-401.

Unakar NJ, Tsui J, Johnson M. Effect of pretreatment of germanium-132 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and galactose cataracts. Curr Eye Res. 1997;16(8):832-837.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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