There is no proven safe or effective dose for germanium. For cancer, intermittent administration of germanium sesquioxide (trade name: Ge-132) 1,000 milligrams has been shown to augment natural killer cell activity for up to ten days. For Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, 150-500 milligrams daily of Ge-132 (germanium sesquioxide) has caused marked symptom relief. For advanced malignant neoplasms, spirogermanium, one type of organogermanium, had limited and acceptable toxicity in utilizing a dose of 120 milligrams per m2 infused over two hours, three times weekly however, the benefits of this dosing remain unclear.
There is no proven safe or effective dose for germanium, and use in children is not recommended.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to germanium. Skin rash occurred in a patient taking a germanium preparation (main component was germanium dioxide with some organic compound present). There have been no available reports of allergy to germanium sesquioxide, spirogermanium or other pure organogermanium compounds.
Pure organic germanium (germanium sesquioxide, Ge-132) is possibly safe when used at recommended doses and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. However, more study is needed to make a firm recommendation. To date, there have been no clinical trials studying germanium sesquioxide but one available case report indicated no side effects.
Most trials have been conducted on spirogermanium and have reported neurotoxicity and neurologic adverse effects; although there is at least one trial that has reported no adverse effects at all. Lethargy, dizziness, ataxia, lightheadedness, visual blurring, partial loss of taste, extreme weakness, ataxia, paresthesia, nausea and grand mal seizure have occurred. Rash and diarrhea have also been reported in patients taking spirogermanium, although it is unclear whether spirogermanium was the cause. There are relatively few reports of hepatic (liver) or renal (kidney) adverse effects with spirogermanium. However, hematologic (blood) toxicity and pulmonary (lung) toxicity have been observed in patients taking spirogermanium and 5-fluorouracil. Spirogermanium is likely unsafe when taken long-term or at high doses.
Depression was observed in two patients receiving propagermanium.
Peripheral neuropathy, anemia, kidney dysfunction, kidney tubular degeneration, myopathy (muscle disease), and germanium accumulation have occurred in those who ingested marketed organic germanium contaminated with germanium dioxide, carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide, germanium lactate citrate, and/or unspecified forms. Avoid inorganic germanium products because of potential toxic effects. Also avoid ingesting organic germanium from unregulated sellers as it may be contaminated with toxic inorganic germanium.
High doses of germanium may result in an increased embryonic resorption, but possible malformations have been reported only after administration of dimethyl germanium oxide (GeO2; inorganic germanium) to pregnant animals. Inorganic germanium should be avoided during pregnancy, and organic germanium is not recommended because of insufficient scientific evidence. Not recommended during breastfeeding due to insufficient available scientific evidence.