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locust bean gum (generic name)

treats Diarrhea in children, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Hypercholesterolemia
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Average Ratings

Alternate Title

Ceratonia siliqua

Category

Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

Alanine, algaroba, arobon, Caesalpinioideae (subfamily), carob bean gum, carob flour, carob gum, carobel, caruba, cellulose, ceratonia gum, Ceratonia siliqua, cheshire gum, China-Eisenwein, cinnamic acid, Fabaceae (family), flavonoids, free gallic acid, fructose, galactomannan, gallic acid, gallotannins, glucose, glycine, goma de garrofín, gomme de caroube, gumilk, hemicellulose, Leguminosae (family), leucine, locust bean, locust bean gum, maltose, methyl gallate, Pomana A, phenolic antioxidants, phenylalanine, praline, St. John's bread, sucrose, tannins, Thiacyl au Caroube, tyrosine, valine.

Background

Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is a leguminous evergreen tree of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). Although it was originally native to Mediterranean regions, it is now cultivated in many warm climates, including Florida and California. The pods may be ground into a flour, which is often used as a cocoa substitute because it has a somewhat similar taste to chocolate and one-third the calories.

Carob has been used to treat infantile diarrhea and carob bean gum has been used to control hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol) and as a dietary adjunct to elevated plasma cholesterol management.

There is conflicting data on the effect of carob bean gum as a formula thickener and its effect on regurgitation frequency. The use of soluble dietary fibers, such as carob bean gum, has been shown to alter food structure, texture and viscosity, the rate of starch degradation during digestion, and the regulation of postprandial blood sugar and insulin levels.

As a food, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given carob generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol): Fiber, such as oat fiber, has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Carob pod fiber or carob bean gum may also have this ability, although additional research is needed to confirm these findings.
Grade: B

Diarrhea in children: Traditionally, carob has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions, especially diarrhea. Preliminary study used different types of carob products as an adjunct to oral rehydrating solution and showed promising results. Additional study is needed in this area.
Grade: C

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (in infants): Locust bean gum is a common food thickener and may prove helpful in infantile gastroesophageal reflux. However, additional study is needed in this area.
Grade: C

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Anthelmintic (expels worms), antioxidant, antiviral, cancer, celiac disease, cough (retching, in infants), demulcent (soothing agent), diabetes, diarrhea (in adults), digestive disorders, dyspepsia (upset stomach), eye infections, flavoring agent, food uses, improve eyesight, laxative, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, stomach pain, vomiting (in infants).

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for carob. Traditionally, 20 grams carob daily with plenty of water has been used. As a powder, 20-30 grams added to water, tea, or milk taken once daily has also been used.

Children (younger than 18 years)

There is no proven safe or effective dose for carob in children, and use is not recommended.

Safety

DISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

Allergies

Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to carob (Ceratonia siliqua), its constituents, or any plants in the Fabaceae family, including tamarind. Pollen from the carob tree has been reported as an important inhalant allergen. Asthma and rhinitis to carob bean flour have been reported. Explosive vomiting, urticaria (hives), and a rash have also been reported following allergy to an anti-regurgitation milk formula containing carob bean gum in an infant. Individuals allergic to peanuts may also have cross-sensitivity to raw carob pulp.

Side Effects and Warnings

There are no reports of serious adverse effects related to the consumption of carob. The consumption in designated therapeutic doses can be generally considered as safe, although side effects may include a feeling of fullness. Carob is likely safe when consumed in amounts usually found in foods; in the United States carob has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.

Carob is possibly unsafe when used uncontrolled and unreflected in infants with gastroesophageal reflux, in pregnant women, or in patients with anemia, diabetes, hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), hypouricemia (low uric acid), known allergies to members of the Fabaceae family, peanuts, or other nuts, or who have experienced previous complications with powdered, bulk forming laxative drinks. Carobis is also possibly safe when used by patients taking herbs or drugs by mouth, as carob bean gum may decrease bowel transit time. Use cautiously in patients with diabetes as locust bean gum may decrease glucose response and glycemic index.

In patients with renal (kidney) failure, ingestion of locust bean gum showed laxative effects, decreased high blood pressure, and caused a fall in serum urea, creatinine, and phosphorus.

A five month-old child who was allergic to an anti-regurgitation milk formula containing carob bean gum experienced urticaria (hives) and a rash within 30 minutes of administration of the formula. Thickening milk feeds (Carobel®) may cause necrotizing enterocolitis (a serious intestinal illness in babies that may cause tissue damage to the intestines) in low birth-weight infants.

Avoid in patients with a chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, or zinc disorder or deficiency as carob bean gum may reduce absorption of these minerals. Use cautiously in patients with anemia (red blood cell deficiency) as carob bean gum may reduce the absorption of iron. Avoid in patients with metabolic disorders, with acute diarrhea or in underweight infants.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Carob is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific data.

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