ARP [N-(Aminooxyacetyl)-N¡-(D-biotinoyl) hydrazine], biocytin, biotin-alkaline phosphate, biotin cadaverine, biotin nitrilotriacetic acid, biotin NTA , biotin-PEO4-amine, Biotin-PEO2-PPO2-amine, biotin-PEO3-maleimide, biotin-PEO4-propionate succinimidyl ester, biotinidase, coenzyme R, D-biotincis-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]-imidazole-4-valeric acid, dUTP biotin, factor alpha, tripotassium salt (BNTA), vitamin Bw, vitamin H, W factor.
Note: This review does not cover the use of biotin in radioimmunotherapy (radioactive therapy) or radio-labeling for diagnostic procedures.
Biotin is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. The name biotin is taken from the Greek word bios meaning "life." Without biotin, certain enzymes do not work properly and various complications can occur involving the skin, intestinal tract, and nervous system. Metabolic problems including very low blood sugars between meals, high blood ammonia, or acidic blood (acidosis) can occur. Death is theoretically possible, although no clear cases have been reported. Recent studies suggest that biotin is also necessary for processes on the genetic level in cells (DNA replication and gene expression).
Biotin deficiency is extremely rare. This is because daily biotin requirements are relatively small, biotin is found in many foods, and the body is able to recycle much of the biotin it has already used. Significant toxicity has not been reported in the available literature with biotin intake.
Biotin deficiency is extremely rare. Some potential causes of biotin deficiency are: long-term use of certain anti-seizure medications; prolonged oral antibiotic use; intestinal malabsorption (for example short gut syndrome); intravenous feeding (total parenteral nutrition/TPN) without added biotin; and eating raw egg whites on a regular basis. Supplementing with biotin appears helpful for the treatment of this deficiency.
Biotin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism:
Disorders such as multiple carboxylase deficiency can cause inborn errors of metabolism that cause a "functional" biotin deficiency. High-dose biotin is used to treat these disorders. Management should be under strict medical supervision.
Biotin has been suggested as a treatment for brittle fingernails, particularly in women. There is not sufficient scientific evidence to form a clear conclusion.
Cardiovascular disease risk (in diabetics):
A combination of biotin and chromium may help lower cholesterol and decrease the risk of developing clogged arteries (called atherosclerosis) in diabetics. However, other research of biotin alone found that biotin did not affect cholesterol, glucose, or insulin levels, but did decrease triglyceride levels. More research with biotin alone is needed.
Diabetes mellitus (type 2):
In early research, biotin has been reported to decrease insulin resistance and improve glucose tolerance, which are both properties that may be beneficial in patients with types 2 (adult-onset) diabetes. Other research suggests that a combination of biotin and chromium may help improve blood sugar control. However, there is not enough human evidence to form a clear conclusion in this area.
Hepatitis (in alcoholics):
Antioxidant therapy with biotin, vitamins A-E, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper, magnesium, folic acid, Coenzyme Q10 did not improve survival rates in alcoholics with hepatitis. More research with biotin alone is needed.
Marginal biotin deficiency has been found to commonly occur during pregnancy. Biotin supplementation during pregnancy is not currently standard practice, and prenatal vitamins generally do not contain biotin. However, individual patients may be considered for biotin supplementation by healthcare practitioners on a case-by-case basis. Additional study is needed in this area.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN):
Intravenous feeding solutions (TPN) should contain biotin, in order to avoid biotin deficiency in recipient patients. This applies for patients in whom TPN is the sole source of nutrition. More study is needed in this area to make a firm recommendation.
The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine recommends a daily Adequate Intake (AI) of 30 micrograms in adults 19 years and older (a daily AI of 25 micrograms is recommended in those ages 14-18 years old). In pregnant women older than 14 years, an AI of 30 micrograms is recommended. During breastfeeding, a daily AI of 35 micrograms is recommended. Most healthy non-pregnant individuals with regular diets obtain these amounts of biotin through dietary consumption.
The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for biotin is 300 micrograms daily. This is the dose used in many dietary supplements. Toxicity with biotin intake has not been reported in the available literature, and doses as high as 200 milligrams daily have been used in patients with inborn errors of metabolism without significant reported toxicity.
Biotin is available as capsules and tablets in various doses and as lozenges. Treatment for biotin deficiency should be under strict medical supervision. There is disagreement among experts about the proper dose. In adults, intramuscular (injected into the muscle) doses as low as 150-300 micrograms daily have been suggested. Higher doses between 10-40 milligrams of biotin daily have also been recommended (given by mouth, injected into the muscle, or injected into the veins).
The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine recommends a daily Adequate Intake (AI) of 5 micrograms daily (~0.7 micrograms per kilogram) in infants ages 0-6 months old; 6 micrograms daily (~0.7 micrograms per kilogram) in infants ages 7-12 months old; 8 micrograms daily in children ages 1-3 years old; 12 micrograms daily in children ages 4 8 years-old; 20 micrograms daily in children ages 9-13 years old; and 25 micrograms in adolescents ages 14-18 years old.
Treatment for biotin deficiency and biotin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism should be under strict medical supervision. There is disagreement among experts about the proper dose.