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Mesoglycan (generic name)

treats Atherosclerosis, Vein clots, Intermittent claudication, Chronic venous ulcers, Venous disorders, and Cerebral ischemia
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Alternate Title

Mesoglycan, Aortic glycosaminoglycans

Category

Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

Acid esterase, aortic acid esterase, aortic acid extract, aortic acid mucopolysaccharides, aortic acid phosphatase, aortic extract, aortic GAGs, aortic glandular extract, aortic glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin, chondroitin polysulfate, chondroitin sulfate A, CSA, dermatan, GAGs, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, heparinoid fraction, heparinoids, heparan sulfate, mesoglycan, mucopolysaccharide, sulfomucoploysaccharide.

Note: This monograph does not include clinical information on chondroitin sulfate.

Background

Interest in aortic acid began in the 1960s and focused on atherosclerosis (hardening of the artieries). This was a logical place to begin research, as aortic extract is usually manufactured from the hearts of animals, usually sheep, cows, or pigs. In this extract are many substances, including aortic acid, which is a broad term encompassing several constituents. Mesoglycan, a preparation of glycosaminoglycans, is the most studied of these constituents.

Although mesoglycan is found in great quantities in the heart, it is found throughout the body, primarily in the cardiovascular system. It is in all three layers of blood vessels, and is responsible for maintaining vessel structure and flexibility. One of the glycosaminoglycans in mesoglycan is heparin sulfate, which may explain why mesoglycan has shown anticoagulation effects in some clinical studies.

Because mesoglycan and aortic acid are extracted from the heart, preliminary studies have focused on cardiovascular disorders, such as atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis, lower limb ischemia, and cutaneous necrotizing venulitis. Mesoglycan has shown the most promise in treating chronic venous ulcers and intermittent claudication. Other areas of future interest may be hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), impaired fibrinolytic activity, and general wound healing. However, more high quality research is needed in all of these areas.

Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Chronic venous ulcers: Mesoglycan, an aortic acid, is a structural component of blood vessels. In the case of venous ulcers, mesoglycan may be able to improve venous health. Additional study is needed to confirm early findings.
Grade: B

Intermittent claudication: Intermittent claudication is part of late stage atherosclerosis, and mesoglycan has shown some therapeutic ability in preliminary atherosclerosis studies in humans. In addition, mesoglycan is a heparin-like substance that has shown anticoagulation ("blood thinning") properties in clinical studies. Additional study is needed.
Grade: B

Atherosclerosis: Mesoglycan is a structural aspect of cardiovascular vessels and organs. One preliminary study indicates that mesoglycan may reduce blood vessel thickening, however, additional research is needed in this field.
Grade: C

Cerebral ischemia: Mesoglycan has shown activity in anticoagulation ("blood thinning") and increasing blood vessel health. Preliminary studies also indicate that it may be helpful in reducing recurring ischemic cerebral attacks and improving quality of life.
Grade: C

Vein clots (deep vein thrombosis): Currently, there is insufficient available evidence to recommend for or against aortic acid for deep vein thrombosis.
Grade: C

Venous disorders: Mesoglycan has shown activity in anticoagulation ("blood thinning") and increasing blood vessel health. Low quality research shows that mesoglycan may be helpful in various venous disorders, including postphlebitic syndrome, venous insufficiency, and varicose syndrome. Additional study is needed.
Grade: C

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Acrocyanosis (lower limb ischemia), AIDS, allergies, angina (chest pain), anticoagulant (blood thinner), arthritis, autism, blood disorders (impaired plasma fibrinolytic activity), bursitis (inflamed bursa), cancer, circulatory disorders, dementia, gastrointestinal reflux disease, headaches, hemorrhoids, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), immunomodulation, inflammation, kidney stones, macular degeneration (eye disease), obstetric and gynecological disorders, pelvic inflammatory disease, peripheral obstructive arterial disease, skin conditions (cutaneous necrotizing venulitis), ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel disease), wound healing

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

Mesoglycan is likely safe when taken by mouth in doses less than or equal to 200 milligrams daily for 18 months. There is no proven effective dose. However, 96 or 100 milligrams mesoglycan daily by mouth for six months for cerebrovascular disease and hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol) has been used. For intermittent claudication (leg pain), one 24-milligram mesoglycan tablet twice daily for six months has been used. For phlebitis, two 12-milligram mesoglycan capsules three times a day for 30 days has been used. For postphlebitic syndrome, 50 milligrams mesoglycan twice a day for three months has been used.

Mesoglycan is also likely safe when 90 milligrams is injected for 10 days under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.

Children (younger than 18 years):

There is no proven safe or effective dose for aortic acid in children.

Safety

DISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

Allergies

There are currently no reported allergic reactions available. Due to the heparan sulfate content of mesoglycan, patients with an allergy to heparin or heparinoid derivatives should use caution.

Side Effects and Warnings

Aortic acid, including mesoglycan, has been well-tolerated for up to 18 months in the available human trials. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cautions against the consumption of any dietary supplement made from animal glands or organs, especially from cows and sheep from countries with known cases of bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE, or "mad cow" disease) or scrapie. It is thought that these extracts may contain viable prions that could infect humans. Currently, there are no available reports of transmission of BSE through aortic acid.

Mesoglycan (injection or taken by mouth) has caused minor side effects including diarrhea, headache.

Use cautiously in patients with coagulation disorders or taking anticoagulation therapy. Use cautiously in patients with an allergy to heparin or heparinoid derivatives.

Use cautiously in patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) or taking antihypertension drugs.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Aortic acid is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Although not well studied in humans, hormonal changes may affect aortic acid levels.

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