Water has been used medicinally for thousands of years, with traditions rooted in ancient China, Japan, India, Rome, Greece, the Americas, and ...

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DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Acikel C, Ulkur E, Guler MM. Prolonged intermittent hydrotherapy and early tangential excision in the treatment of an extensive strong alkali burn. Burns 2001;27(3):293-296.

Aderhold KJ, Perry L. Jet hydrotherapy for labor and postpartum pain relief. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 1991;16(2):97-99.

Agius G, Degand F, Herisse J, et al. Suspected transmission of eczema herpeticum in a thermal bath establishment. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;13(12):1084-1086.

Aird IA, Luckas MJ, Buckett WM, et al. Effects of intrapartum hydrotherapy on labour related parameters. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;37(2):137-142.

Ammer K, Melnizky P. [Medicinal baths for treatment of generalized fibromyalgia]. Forsch Komplementarmed 1999;6(2):80-85.

Anstey KH, Roskell C. Hydrotherapy: detrimental or beneficial to the respiratory system? Physiotherapy 2000;86(1):5-13.

Babina LM, Arzumanova VV, Iordanova II. [Balneotherapy of children with sequelae of brain injury]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2001;101(4):29-31.

Beamon S, Falkenbach A, Jobst K. Hydrotherapy for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(2):CD001741.

Benfield RD, Herman J, Katz VL, et al. Hydrotherapy in labor. Res Nurs Health 2001;24(1):57-67.

Benfield RD. Hydrotherapy in labor. J Nurs Scholarsh 2002;34(4):347-352.

Brock FE. [Additive effects of vein-typical hydrotherapy according to Kneipp and topic treatment with arnica-containing gel in patients with chronic venous insufficiency-synergism of naturopathic therapies]. Erfahrungsheilkunde 2001;6:357-363.

Buskila D, Abu-Shakra M, Neumann L, et al. Balneotherapy for fibromyalgia at the Dead Sea. Rheumatol Int 2001;20(3):105-108.

Constant F, Collin JF, Guillemin F, et al. Effectiveness of spa therapy in chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol 1995;22(7):1315-1320.

Constant F, Guillemin F, Collin JF, et al. Use of spa therapy to improve the quality of life of chronic low back pain patients. Med Care 1998;36(9):1309-1314.

Danesino V. [Balneotherapy with arsenical-ferruginous water in chronic cervico- vaginitis. A case-control study]. Minerva Ginecol 2001;53(1):63-69.

Eckert K, Turnbull D, MacLennan A. Immersion in water in the first stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Birth 2001;28(2):84-93.

Ekmekcioglu C, Strauss-Blasche G, Feyertag J, et al. The effect of balneotherapy on ambulatory blood pressure. Altern Ther Health Med 2000;6(6):46-53.

Elkayam O, Ophir J, Brener S, et al. Immediate and delayed effects of treatment at the Dead Sea in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2000;19(3):77-82.

Embil JM, McLeod JA, Al Barrak AM, et al. An outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus on a burn unit: potential role of contaminated hydrotherapy equipment. Burns 2001;27(7):681-688.

Eriksson M, Mattsson LA, Ladfors L. Early or late bath during the first stage of labour: a randomised study of 200 women. Midwifery 1997;13(3):146-148.

Ernst E, Pittler MH. [How effective is spa treatment? A systematic review of randomized studies]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1998;123(10):273-277.

Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL. A single blind randomized, controlled trial of hydrotherapy for varicose veins. Vasa 1991;20(2):147-152.

Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL. Hydrotherapy for varicose veins: a randomized, controlled trial. Phlebology 1992;7(4):154-157.

Even PZ, Gumon R, Kipnis V, et al. Dead Sea sun versus Dead Sea water in the treatment of psoriasis. J Derm Treat 1996;7(2):83-86.

Franke A, Reiner L, Pratzel HG, et al. Long-term efficacy of radon spa therapy in rheumatoid arthritis--a randomized, sham-controlled study and follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39(8):894-902.

Gerber B, Wilken H, Barten G, et al. Positive effect of balneotherapy on post-PID symptoms. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 1993;38(5):296-300.

Gilbert RE, Tookey PA. Perinatal mortality and morbidity among babies delivered in water: surveillance study and postal survey. BMJ 1999;319(7208):483-487.

Guillemin F, Constant F, Collin JF, et al. Short and long-term effect of spa therapy in chronic low back pain. Br J Rheumatol 1994;33(2):148-151.

Gunther V, Mur E, Kinigadner U, et al. Fibromyalgia--the effect of relaxation and hydrogalvanic bath therapy on the subjective pain experience. Clin Rheumatol 1994;13(4):573-578.

Halevy S, Giryes H, Friger M, et al. Dead Sea bath salt for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a double-blind controlled study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1997;9:237-242.

Halevy S, Sukenik S. Different modalities of spa therapy for skin diseases at the Dead Sea area. Arch Dermatol 1998;134(11):1416-1420.

Hall J, Skevington SM, Maddison PJ, et al. A randomized and controlled trial of hydrotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1996;9(3):206-215.

Harari M, Shani J, Seidl V, et al. Climatotherapy of atopic dermatitis at the Dead Sea: demographic evaluation and cost-effectiveness. Int J Dermatol 2000;39(1):59-69.

Harari M, Shani J. Balneotherapy for rheumatic diseases at the Dead Sea. Int J Derm 1998;37(9):718.

Hooper PL. Hot-tub therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1999;341(12):924-925.

Hubert B, de Mahenge A, Grimont F, et al. An outbreak of pneumonia and meningitis caused by a previously undescribed gram-negative bacterium in a hot spring spa. Epidemiol Infect 1991;107(2):373-381.

Insler MS, Gore H. Pseudomonas keratitis and folliculitis from whirlpool exposure. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;101(1):41-43.

Konrad K, Tatrai T, Hunka A, et al. Controlled trial of balneotherapy in treatment of low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis 1992;51(6):820-822.

Krajnc I, Siftar M, Turk Z, et al. The effect of balneotherapy on the low-back pain disease at the Moravci spa and the department of physiotherapy and rheumatology - Maribor teaching hospital. Scand J Rheumatol 1992;(suppl 94):55.

Kubota K, Machida I, Tamura K, et al. Treatment of refractory cases of atopic dermatitis with acidic hot- spring bathing. Acta Derm Venereol 1997;77(6):452-454.

Kurabayashi H, Machida I, Kubota K. Improvement in ejection fraction by hydrotherapy as rehabilitation in patients with chronic pulmonary emphysema. Physiother Res Int 1998;3(4):284-291.

Landewe RB, Peeters R, Verreussel RL, et al. [No difference in effectiveness measured between treatment in a thermal bath and in an exercise bath in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1992;136(4):173-176.

Lindberg A, Rasmussen P, Steensberg J. [Pseudomonas infection associated with whirlpool bath]. Ugeskr Laeger 1992;154(49):3507-3509.

Loughney E, Harrison J. Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5- dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments. Occup Med (Lond) 1998;48(7):461-463.

McIlveen B, Robertson VJ. A randomised controlled study of the outcome of hydrotherapy for subjects with low back or back and leg pain. J Manip Physiol Ther 1998;21(6):439-440.

Mcllveen B, Robertson VJ. A randomised controlled study of the outcome of hydrotherapy for subjects with low back or back and leg pain. Physiotherapy 1998;84(1):17-26.

Meldrum R. Survey of Staphylococcus aureus contamination in a hospital's spa and hydrotherapy pools. Commun Dis Public Health 2001;4(3):205-208.

Moore JE, Heaney N, Millar BC, et al. Incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in recreational and hydrotherapy pools. Commun Dis Public Health 2002;5(1):23-6.

Nagiev IuK, Davydova OB, Zhavoronkova EA, et al. [Effects of underwater massage douche on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with chronic cardiac failure and postinfarction cardiosclerosis] Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2002;4:11-5.

Nerurkar LS, West F, May M, et al. Survival of herpes simplex virus in water specimens collected from hot tubs in spa facilities and on plastic surfaces. JAMA 1983;250(22):3081-3083.

Neumann L, Sukenik S, Bolotin A, et al. The effect of balneotherapy at the Dead Sea on the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 2001;20(1):15-19.

Nguyen M, Revel M, Dougados M. Prolonged effects of 3 week therapy in a spa resort on lumbar spine, knee and hip osteoarthritis: follow-up after 6 months. A randomized controlled trial. Br J Rheumatol 1997;36(1):77-81.

Nikodem VC. Immersion in water in pregnancy, labour and birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD000111.

Parker PC, Boles RG. Pseudomonas otitis media and bacteremia following a water birth. Pediatrics 1997;99(4):653.

Penny PT. Contact dermatitis due to BCDMH in a hydrotherapy pool. Occup Med (Lond) 1999;49(4):265-267.

Petrakova VS. [Possibility of using intensive peloid balneotherapy on duodenal ulcer patients]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2001;(5):20-23.

Pinton J, Friden H, Kettaneh-Wold N, et al. Clinical and biological effects of balneotherapy with selenium-rich spa water in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1995;133(2):344-347.

Queneau P, Francon A, Graber-Duvernay B. [Methodological reflections on 20 randomized clinical hydrotherapy trials in rheumatology]. Therapie 2001;56(6):675-684.

Rawal J, Shah A, Stirk F, et al. Water birth and infection in babies. BMJ 1994;309(6953):511.

Ridgway GL, Tedder RS. Birthing pools and infection control. Lancet 1996;347(9007):1051-1052.

Robertson PA, Huang LJ, Croughan-Minihane MS, et al. Is there an association between water baths during labor and the development of chorioamnionitis or endometritis? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178(6):1215-1221.

Roome AP, Spencer RC. Birthing pools and infection control. Lancet 1996;348(9022):274.

Rush J, Burlock S, Lambert K, et al. The effects of whirlpools baths in labor: a randomized, controlled trial. Birth 1996;23(3):136-143.

Rycroft RJ, Penny PT. Dermatoses associated with brominated swimming pools. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983;287(6390):462.

Rymal C. Can patients at risk for lymphedema use hot tubs? Clin J Oncol Nurs 2002;6(6):369.

Saradeth T, Ernst E, Resch KL. Hydrotherapy for varicose veins - a randomized, controlled trial. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil 1993;3(3):123-124.

Shafik A. Role of warm-water bath in anorectal conditions. The "thermosphincteric reflex". J Clin Gastroenterol 1993;16(4):304-308.

Sjogren T, Long N, Storay I, et al. Group hydrotherapy versus group land-based treatment for chronic low back pain. Physiother Res Int 1997;2(4):212-222.

Smit TE, Harrison R. Hydrotherapy and chronic lower back pain: a pilot study. Aust J Physiotherapy 1991;37(4):229-234.

Speer KP, Cavanaugh JT, Warren RF, et al. A role for hydrotherapy in shoulder rehabilitation. Am J Sports Med 1993;21(6):850-853.

Stanwood W, Pinzur MS. Risk of contamination of the wound in a hydrotherapeutic tank. Foot Ankle Int 1998;19(3):173-176.

Stefanini L, Gigli P, Galassi A, et al. Pharmacologic treatment and/or balneotherapy of chronic venous insufficiency. Gaz Med Ital Arch Scienze Mediche 1996;155(4):179-185.

Strauss-Blasche G, Ekmekcioglu C, Klammer N, et al. The change of well-being associated with spa therapy. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2000;7(6):269-274.

Strauss-Blasche G, Ekmekcioglu C, Vacariu G, et al. Contribution of individual spa therapies in the treatment of chronic pain. Clin J Pain 2002;18(5):302-9.

Sukenik S, Baradin R, Codish S, et al. Balneotherapy at the Dead Sea area for patients with psoriatic arthritis and concomitant fibromyalgia. Isr Med Assoc J 2001;3(2):147-150.

Sukenik S, Flusser D, Abu-Shakra M. The role of spa therapy in various rheumatic diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1999;25(4):883-897.

Sukenik S, Flusser D, Codish S, et al. Balneotherapy at the Dead Sea area for knee osteoarthritis. Isr Med Assoc J 1999;1(2):83-85.

Sukenik S. Balneotherapy for rheumatic diseases at the Dead Sea area. Isr J Med Sci 1996;32 Suppl:S16-S19.

Sukenik S. Balneotherapy for rheumatic diseases at the Dead Sea. Int J Dermatol 1998;37(9):717-718.

Tredget EE, Shankowsky HA, Joffe AM, et al. Epidemiology of infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn patients: the role of hydrotherapy. Clin Infect Dis 1992;15(6):941-949.

van Rijswijk MH. [A prospective study of the effectiveness of thermal bath treatments in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1992;136(4):163-164.

Verhagen AP, de Vet HC, de Bie RA, et al. Balneotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD000518.

Verhagen AP, de Vet HC, de Bie RA, et al. Taking baths: the efficacy of balneotherapy in patients with arthritis. A systematic review. J Rheumatol 1997;24(10):1964-1971.

Welch V, Brosseau L, Shea B, et al. Thermotherapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(2):CD002826.

Winthrop KL, Abrams M, Yakrus M, et al. An outbreak of mycobacterial furunculosis associated with footbaths at a nail salon. N Engl J Med 2002;346(18):1366-71.

Yurkuran M, Celiktas M. A randomized, controlled trial of balneotherapy in the treatment of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Physikalische Medizin Rehabilitationsmedizin Kurortmedizin 1996;6(4):109-112.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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