Music therapy
Music is an ancient tool of healing that was recognized in the writings of the Greek philosophers Pythagoras, Aristotle, and Plato. The modern ...

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WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Abuse, addiction, agility, alcoholism, anger management, apprehension, asthma, auditory hallucinations, balance, behavioral problems, bipolar disorder, brain injuries, breathing difficulties, childbirth, cognitive performance enhancement (problem solving), coordination, COPD (chronic pulmonary obstructive disease), coping skills, diabetes, domestic violence, dyspnea, eating disorders, epilepsy, gait consistency, gait therapy in stroke victims, headaches, high blood pressure, high-risk pregnancies, impulsivity, intellectual stimulation, irritability, joint mobility, labor pain, memory improvement (recall), migraines, motion sickness, motivation, multiple sclerosis, muscle tension, neurodermatitis, neurological trauma, neurovegetative complaints (spinal cord stimulation in persistent vegetative state), obstetrics, physical rehabilitation, post-operative recovery, psoriasis, pulmonary conditions (respiration rate, respiratory muscle strength), restlessness, social behavior, strength, stroke, substance abuse.


DISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

Just as certain music can help induce relaxation and peaceful states, other music may cause agitation.

There is evidence that music that reflects the listener's personal preference is more likely to have desired effects.

It is possible that music through headphones during medical procedures could interfere with the patient's cooperation with the procedures. Also, listening to music at high volumes may damage the ears and lead to hearing loss.


This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ( William Collinge, PhD, MPH (Collinge & Associates); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Dana A. Hackman, BS (Northeastern University); Brian Szczechowski, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Shannon Welch, PharmD (Northeastern University); Jen Woods, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).


DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

Clark M, Isaacks-Downton G, Wells N, et al. Use of preferred music to reduce emotional distress and symptom activity during radiation therapy. J Music Ther 2006 Fall;43(3):247-65.

Hatem TP, Lira PI, Mattos SS. The therapeutic effects of music in children following cardiac surgery. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2006 May-Jun;82(3):186-92.

Hilliard RE. The effects of orff-based music therapy and social work groups on childhood grief symptoms and behaviors. J Music Ther 2007 Summer;44(2):123-38.

Holmes C, Knights A, Dean C, et al. Keep music live: music and the alleviation of apathy in dementia subjects. Int Psychogeriatr 2006 Dec;18(4):623-30.

Jaber S, Bahloul H, Guetin S, et al. [Effects of music therapy in intensive care unit without sedation in weaning patients versus non-ventilated patients]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2007 Jan;26(1):30-8.

Kern P, Aldridge D. Using embedded music therapy interventions to support outdoor play of young children with autism in an inclusive community-based child care program. J Music Ther 2006 Winter;43(4):270-94.

Kwon IS, Kim J, Park KM. Effects of music therapy on pain, discomfort, and depression for patients with leg fractures. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2006 Jun;36(4):630-6.

Leardi S, Pietroletti R, Angeloni G, et al. Randomized clinical trial examining the effect of music therapy in stress response to day surgery. Br J Surg 2007 Aug;94(8):943-7.

Liu RW, Mehta P, Fortuna S, et al. A randomized prospective study of music therapy for reducing anxiety during cast room procedures. J Pediatr Orthop 2007 Oct-Nov;27(7):831-3.

Ostermann T, Schmid W. Music therapy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a comprehensive literature review. Expert Rev Neurother 2006 Apr;6(4):469-77.

Rudin D, Kiss A, Wetz RV, et al. Music in the endoscopy suite: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Endoscopy 2007 Jun;39(6):507-10.

Sendelbach SE, Halm MA, Doran KA, et al. Effects of music therapy on physiological and psychological outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2006 May-Jun;21(3):194-200.

Silverman MJ. The influence of music on the symptoms of psychosis: a meta-analysis. J Music Ther 2003 Spring;40(1):27-40.

Svansdottir HB, Snaedal J. Music therapy in moderate and severe dementia of Alzheimer's type: a case-control study. Int Psychogeriatr 2006 Dec;18(4):613-21.

Talwar N, Crawford MJ, Maratos A, et al. Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: exploratory randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2006 Nov;189:405-9.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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