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Stress and Anxiety
Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, but in some people, they can become bigger issues. Learn what causes stress and anxiety and how t...

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What Are Stress and Anxiety?

Most people experience stress and anxiety from time to time. Stress is any demand placed on your brain or physical body. People can report feeling “stressed” when multiple competing demands are placed on them. The feeling of being “stressed” can be triggered by an event that makes you feel frustrated or nervous. Anxiety is a feeling of fear, worry, or unease. It can be a reaction to stress, or it can occur in people who are unable to identify significant stressors in their life. Stress and anxiety are not always bad. In the short term, they can help you overcome a challenge or dangerous situation. Examples of normal stress and anxiety include worrying about finding a job, feeling nervous before a big test, or being embarrassed in certain social situations. If we did not experience some anxiety we might not be motivated to do things that we need to do (for instance, studying for that big test!).

However, if stress and anxiety begin interfering with your daily life, it may indicate a more serious issue. If you are avoiding situations due to irrational fears, constantly worrying, or severe anxiety about a traumatic event weeks after it happened, it may be time to seek help.

What Do Stress and Anxiety Feel Like?

Stress and anxiety can produce both physical and psychological symptoms. People experience stress and anxiety differently. Common physical symptoms include:

  • stomachache
  • muscle tension
  • headache
  • rapid breathing
  • fast heartbeat
  • sweating
  • shaking
  • dizziness
  • frequent urination
  • change in appetite
  • trouble sleeping
  • diarrhea
  • fatigue

In addition to physical symptoms, stress and anxiety can cause mental or emotional ones. These can include:

  • feelings of impending doom
  • panic or nervousness, especially in social settings
  • difficulty concentrating
  • irrational anger
  • restlessness

People who have stress and anxiety over long periods of time may experience negative related health outcomes. They are more likely to develop heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and may even develop depression and panic disorder.

What Causes Stress and Anxiety?

For most people, stress and anxiety come and go. They usually occur after particular life events, but then go away.

Common Causes

Common stressors include:

  • moving
  • starting a new school or job
  • having an illness or injury
  • having a friend or family member who is ill or injured
  • death of a family member or friend
  • getting married
  • having a baby

Drugs and Medications

Drugs that contain stimulants may make the symptoms of stress and anxiety worse. Regular use of caffeine, illicit drugs such as cocaine, and even alcohol can also make symptoms worse.

Prescription medications that can make symptoms worse include:

  • thyroid medications
  • asthma inhalers
  • diet pills

Stress- and Anxiety-Related Disorders

Stress and anxiety that occur frequently or seem out of proportion to the stressor may be signs of an anxiety disorder. An estimated 40 million Americans suffer from some type of anxiety disorder.

People with these disorders may feel anxious and stressed on a daily basis and for prolonged periods of time. These disorders include:

  • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that causes uncontrollable worrying. Sometimes people worry about bad things happening to them or loved ones, and at other times the person may not be able to identify any source of worry.
  • Panic disorder is a condition that causes moments of extreme fear, a pounding heart, and shortness of breath, commonly known as panic attacks.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that causes flashbacks or anxiety as the result of a traumatic experience.
  • Social phobia is a condition that causes intense feelings of anxiety in situations that involve interacting with others.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a condition that causes repetitive thoughts and the compulsion to complete certain ritual actions.

When to Seek Help

If you are having thoughts about harming yourself or others, you should seek immediate medical help. Stress and anxiety are treatable conditions and there are many resources, strategies, and treatments that can help. If you are unable to control your worries, and stress is impacting your daily life, talk to your primary care provider about ways to manage stress and anxiety.

Techniques to Manage Stress and Anxiety

It’s normal to experience stress and anxiety from time to time, and there are strategies you can use to make them more manageable. Pay attention to how your body and mind respond to stressful and anxiety-producing situations. Next time a stressful experience occurs, you will be able to anticipate your reaction and it may be less disruptive.

Managing Everyday Stress and Anxiety

Certain lifestyle changes can help alleviate symptoms of stress and anxiety. These techniques can be used along with medical treatments for anxiety. Techniques to reduce stress and anxiety include:

  • eating a balanced, healthy diet
  • limiting caffeine and alcohol consumption
  • getting enough sleep
  • getting regular exercise
  • meditating
  • scheduling time for hobbies
  • keeping a diary of your feelings
  • practicing deep breathing
  • recognizing the factors that trigger your stress
  • talking to a friend

Be mindful if you tend to use substances like alcohol or drugs as ways to cope with stress and anxiety. This can lead to serious substance abuse issues that can make stress and anxiety worse.

Seeking Professional Help for Stress and Anxiety

There are many ways to seek treatment for stress and anxiety. If you feel like you are unable to cope with stress and anxiety, your primary care provider may suggest that you see a mental health provider. They may use psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, to help you work through your stress and anxiety. Your therapist may also teach you applied relaxation techniques to help you manage stress.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a popular and effective method used to manage anxiety. This type of therapy teaches you to recognize anxious thoughts and behaviors and change them into more positive ones.

Exposure therapy and systematic desensitization can be effective in treating phobias. They involve gradually exposing you to anxiety-provoking stimuli to help manage your feelings of fear.

Your primary care provider may also recommend medication to help treat a diagnosed anxiety disorder. These may include selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as sertraline (Zoloft) or paroxetine (Paxil). Sometimes providers use antianxiety medications (benzodiazepines), such as diazepam (Valium) or lorazepam (Ativan), but these approaches are generally used on a short-term basis due to the risk of addiction.

What Is the Long-Term Outlook for Stress and Anxiety?

Stress and anxiety can be unpleasant to deal with. They can also have negative effects on your physical health if untreated for long periods of time. While some amount of stress and anxiety in life is normal and shouldn’t be cause for concern, it’s important to recognize when the stress in your life is causing negative consequences. If you feel like your stress and anxiety are becoming unmanageable, seek professional help or ask others to help you find the support you need.

Written by: The Healthline Editorial Team
Edited by:
Medically Reviewed by: [Ljava.lang.Object;@456a523d
Published: Dec 3, 2015
Published By: Healthline Networks, Inc.
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