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Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that may not present any noticeable symptoms. Unprotected sex with multiple partners leads to gre...

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What Is a Chlamydia Infection?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria. People who have chlamydia often do not have outward symptoms in the early stages. That might make you think you shouldn’t worry. However, chlamydia can cause health problems in the later stages, including preventing women from getting pregnant or even endangering their pregnancies.

If you have unprotected sex with someone whose STI status you’re not certain of, get tested for chlamydia and other STIs. You should get tested every time you might have been exposed. The treatment for chlamydia is oral antibiotics given either in multiple doses or just one dose. Waiting too long to treat it can cause serious complications. Make sure you talk to a doctor as soon as you think you might have been exposed.

Causes of Chlamydia Infection

Sex without a condom and unprotected oral sex are the main ways a chlamydia infection can spread. You don’t have to have penetration to get it. Touching genitals together may also transmit the bacteria. It can also be contracted during anal sex.

Newborn babies can acquire chlamydia from their infected mother during birth. Most prenatal testing includes a chlamydia test, but it doesn’t hurt to double-check with your OB-GYN during your first prenatal checkup.

Someone can get a chlamydia infection in the eye through oral or genital contact with the eyes, but this isn’t common.

Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection

Men and women can get the infection, but women are more likely to be diagnosed. Statistically, you’re more likely to get an STI if you have sex with more than one person. Infection rates are highest among younger women partly because their immature cervical cells are vulnerable to infection, but older age isn’t a protection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all sexually active women age 25 and younger get screened for chlamydia every year, as well as older women with risk factors like multiple or new partners.

Other risk factors include having an STI in the past or currently having an infection because that could lower your resistance. Being raped puts you at risk for chlamydia. If you are forced into any sexual activity, including oral sex, you should get tested.

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms of Chlamydia

Many people don’t notice the symptoms of chlamydia. If symptoms do appear, it’s usually one to three weeks after you have been infected. Some of the most common symptoms include:

  • burning sensation during urination
  • discharge from the penis or vagina (yellow or green)
  • pain in the lower abdomen
  • pain in the testicles
  • painful sexual intercourse in women (dyspareunia)

In some women, the infection can spread to the fallopian tubes, which may cause a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is a medical emergency. The symptoms of PID are fever, severe pelvic pain, nausea, and abnormal bleeding between periods.

It’s also possible to get a chlamydia infection in the anus. In this case, the main symptoms are often discharge, pain, and bleeding from this area.

If you have oral sex with someone who has the infection, you may get it in your throat. You may notice a sore throat, a cough, or fever, but it’s possible to carry the bacteria in your throat and not know it.

Diagnosing Chlamydia

When you see a doctor about chlamydia, you will likely be asked about your symptoms. If you don’t have any, your doctor may ask why you think you might have the infection. In this case, it’s important to talk about how you think you were exposed.

The most effective diagnostic test for chlamydia is to swab the vagina in women and to test the urine in men. If there is a chance the infection is in your anus or throat, these areas may be swabbed as well.

Treating Chlamydia

The good news is that chlamydia is easy to treat. Since it’s bacterial in nature, it’s treated with antibiotics. Azithromycin is an antibiotic usually prescribed in a single, large dose, but the dose may also be spread out over 5 days. Doxycycline is an antibiotic that must be taken twice per day for about one week.

Your doctor may prescribe other antibiotics. No matter which antibiotic you are given, you will need to follow the dosage instructions carefully to make sure the infection clears up fully. This can take up to two weeks, even with the single-dose medicines. Don’t have sex during the treatment time. Unfortunately, you can get chlamydia again if you’re exposed, even if you’ve had it and it was treated.


If you see the doctor soon after you suspect you’ve contracted chlamydia, you will likely be able to clear up the infection with no lasting problems. You may experience serious medical issues if you wait too long to treat it.

Female Complications

Some women develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection that can damage the uterus, cervix, and ovaries. PID is a painful disease that often requires hospital treatment.

Women can also become infertile if chlamydia is left untreated because the fallopian tubes may become scarred. Pregnant women with the infection can pass the bacteria to their babies during birth, which can cause eye infections and pneumonia in newborns.

Male Complications

Men can also experience complications when chlamydia is left untreated. For example, the epididymis, the tube that holds the testicles in place, may become inflamed, causing pain. This is known as epididymitis. The infection can also spread to the prostate gland, causing a fever, painful intercourse, and discomfort in the lower back.

These are just some of the most common complications of untreated chlamydia, which is why it’s important to get medical attention right away. Most people who get treatment quickly have no long-term medical problems.

How to Prevent Chlamydia

The surest way for a sexually active person to avoid contracting chlamydia is to have sex with a condom unless you are absolutely certain your partner isn’t carrying the infection. You should either avoid having oral sex or use protection during oral sex until you know the other person doesn’t have chlamydia. Use protection with each new partner and get tested for chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases between each new partner. 

Written by: The Healthline Editorial Team
Edited by:
Medically Reviewed by:
Published: Sep 11, 2015
Published By: Healthline Networks, Inc.
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