What is nasogastric intubation?
If you can’t eat or swallow, you may need to have a
nasogastric tube inserted. This process is known as nasogastric (NG)
intubation. During NG intubation, your doctor or nurse will insert a thin
plastic tube through your nostril, down your esophagus, and into your stomach.
Once this tube is in place, they can use it to give you food and medicine. They
can also use it to remove things from your stomach, such as toxic substances or
a sample of your stomach contents.
When would you need nasogastric intubation?
NG intubation is most commonly used for patients who:
- have neck or facial injuries
- have had neck or facial surgery
- need a mechanical ventilator to breathe
- have an intestinal obstruction or blockage
- are comatose
It’s also used to help treat some premature infants.
Your doctor or nurse can give you food and medicine through
an NG tube. They can also apply suction to it, allowing them to remove contents
from your stomach. For example, your doctor may use NG intubation to help treat
accidental poisoning or drug overdose. If you’ve swallowed something harmful,
they can use an NG tube to try to remove it from your stomach or deliver
treatments. For instance, they may administer activated charcoal through your
NG tube to help absorb the harmful substance. This can help lower your chances
of a severe reaction.
Your doctor or nurse can also use an NG tube to:
- remove a sample of your stomach contents for analysis
- remove some of your stomach contents to the
relieve the pressure on an intestinal obstruction or blockage
- remove blood from your stomach
should you prepare for nasogastric intubation?
If you need to have an NG tube inserted, it will probably
happen in a hospital. In some cases, you may get the tube inserted at home. In
most cases, you won’t need to take any special steps to prepare. Right before it’s
inserted, you may need to blow your nose and take a few sips of water.
What will the
Your doctor, nurse, or other care provider will insert your
NG tube while you’re lying down in a bed with the head elevated or sitting in a
chair. They will likely ask you to bend your head, neck, and body at various
angles as they thread the tube through your nostril, down your esophagus, and
into your stomach. These movements can help ease the tube into position,
without causing you too much pain or discomfort. They may also ask you to
swallow or take small sips of water when the tube reaches your esophagus to
help it slide into your stomach.
Once your NG tube is in place, your care provider should
take steps to check its placement. For example, they might try to draw fluid
out of your stomach. Or they might insert air through the tube, while listening
to your stomach with a stethoscope.
To keep your NG tube in place, your care provider will
likely secure it to your face with a piece of tape. They can reposition it if
it feels uncomfortable.
What are the benefits of nasogastric intubation?
If you can’t eat or drink, NG intubation and feeding can
help you get the nutrition and medications you need. NG intubation can also
help your doctor treat an intestinal obstruction in ways that are less invasive
than intestinal surgery. They can also use it to collect a sample of your
stomach contents for analysis, which can help them diagnose certain conditions.
What are the risks of nasogastric intubation?
If you’re conscious when your NG tube is inserted, you may
feel some discomfort as the tube passes through your nostril into your stomach.
If your NG tube isn’t inserted properly, it can potentially injure the tissue
inside your nose, sinuses, throat, esophagus, or stomach. Your care provider
may also mistakenly thread it through your windpipe into your lungs. If this
happens, they may accidentally pass food or medicine into your lungs. This
is known as aspiration. It can lead to pneumonia or other infections.
NG tube feeding can also potentially cause:
- abdominal cramping
- abdominal swelling
- regurgitation of food or medicine
NG tube can potentially become blocked, torn, or dislodged. This can lead to
additional complications. Using an NG tube for too long can also cause
ulcers or infections to develop on the tissue of your sinuses, throat,
esophagus, or stomach. If you need long-term tube feedings, your doctor will
likely recommend a gastrostomy tube. They can surgically implant a gastrostomy
tube in your abdomen to allow your care providers to introduce food directly
into your stomach.
How can you lower your risk of complications?
To lower your risk of complications from NG intubation and
feeding, you or your healthcare provider can:
your teeth regularly
your nose frequently
the tube securely to your face
the tube for signs of leakage, blockage, and kinks
your head during feedings and for an hour afterwards
out for signs of irritation, ulceration, and infection
Ask your doctor for more information about your specific
treatment plan and outlook.