What Is Infective Endocarditis?
Infective endocarditis is an infection in the heart valves or
endocardium. The endocardium is the lining of the heart. This condition is
usually caused by bacteria entering the bloodstream and infecting the heart.
Bacteria may originate in the:
- respiratory system
- urinary tract
When this condition is caused by bacteria, it is also known as
bacterial endocarditis. In rare cases, it can also be caused by fungi or other
Infective endocarditis is a serious condition that requires
prompt medical treatment. If left untreated, the infection can damage your
heart valves. This can lead to problems including:
- damage to other organs
- heart failure
This condition is rare in people with healthy hearts. People who
have other heart conditions are at higher risk.
You may need to take antibiotics before certain medical and
dental procedures if you are at high risk for infective endocarditis.
Antibiotics help stop bacteria from entering your bloodstream and causing
infection. Talk to your surgeon or dentist before any surgical procedure.
What Are the Symptoms of Infective
Symptoms vary from person to person. In some people symptoms come
on suddenly, while others develop symptoms more slowly. Talk to your doctor if
you experience any of the symptoms listed below. People at high risk of
endocarditis should take particular care.
Symptoms may include:
- chest pain
- blood in urine
- red skin rash
- white spots in mouth or on tongue
- pain and swelling in joints
- muscle aches and tenderness
- abnormal urine color
- shortness of breath
- sore throat
- sinus congestion and headache
- nausea or vomiting
- weight loss
Infective endocarditis can be life threatening if not treated
promptly. Unfortunately, signs of infective endocarditis can resemble many
other illnesses. Talk to your doctor immediately if you experience any of the
symptoms listed above.
Who Is at High Risk for Infective
You may be at risk for this condition if you have:
- artificial heart valves
- congenital heart disease
- heart valve disease
- damaged heart valves
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- a history of endocarditis
- history of illegal drug use
- mitral valve prolapse and valve regurgitation
(leaking) and/or thickened valve leaflets
The risk of infective endocarditis is higher after procedures
that allow bacteria access to the bloodstream. These include:
- dental procedures involving the gums
- insertion of catheters or needles
- procedures to treat infections
These procedures do not put most healthy people at risk. However,
people who have one or more risk factors for infective endocarditis need to be
more careful. If you need one of these procedures, talk to your doctor first.
You may be put on antibiotics before your visit.
Diagnosing Infective Endocarditis
When you visit your doctor, you will first be asked to describe
your symptoms. Your doctor will then perform a physical examination. They will
listen to your heart with a stethoscope and check for sounds of a murmur, which
may be present with infective endocarditis. Your doctor may also check for a
fever and feel for an enlarged spleen by pressing on your left upper abdomen.
If your doctor suspects infective endocarditis, your blood will
be tested for bacteria. A complete blood count (CBC) may also be used to check
for anemia. A shortage of red blood cells can occur with infective
Your doctor may order an echocardiogram, or an ultrasound of the heart. This procedure uses
sound waves to produce an image. The ultrasound wand may be placed on your
chest. Alternatively, a smaller device may be threaded down your throat and
into your esophagus. This can offer a more detailed image. The echocardiogram
looks for damaged tissue, holes, or other structural changes in your heart
Your doctor may also order an electrocardiogram (EKG). An EKG monitors electrical activity
in your heart. This painless test can find an irregular heartbeat caused by
Imaging tests can check if your heart has enlarged. They may also
be able to detect signs that infection has spread to other areas of your body.
Such tests include:
- chest X-ray
- computed tomography (CT) scan
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
If you are diagnosed with infective endocarditis, you will be
immediately admitted to the hospital for treatment.
Treating Infective Endocarditis
Infective endocarditis can cause irreversible damage to the heart.
If it’s not caught and treated quickly, it can become life threatening. You
will need to be treated in a hospital to prevent the infection from getting
worse and causing complications.
Antibiotics and Initial Treatment
While in the hospital, your vital signs will be monitored. You
will be given antibiotics intravenously (IV). Once you go home, you will
continue with oral or IV antibiotics for at least four weeks. During this time,
you will keep visiting your doctor. Regular blood tests will check that the
infection is going away.
Surgery may be needed if your heart valves have been damaged.
Your surgeon may recommend repairing the heart valve. The valve can also be
replaced using a new valve made from either animal tissue or artificial
Surgery may also be necessary if the antibiotics are not working
or if the infection is fungal. Anti-fungal medications are not always effective
for infections in the heart.
Recovery and Outlook
If left untreated, this condition will be fatal. However, most people
are able to recover with antibiotic treatment. The chance of recovery depends
on factors including your age and the cause of your infection. In addition,
patients who get early treatment have a better chance of making a full
It may take you longer to recover completely if surgery was