What Is an Intestinal Infection Due to E. Coli?
E. coli is a type of bacteria
that normally live in the intestines of people and animals. However, some types
of E. coli, particularly E. coli 0157:H7, can cause intestinal
Symptoms of intestinal infection
include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever. More severe cases can lead to
bloody diarrhea, dehydration, or even kidney failure. People with weakened
immune systems, pregnant women, young children, and older adults are at
increased risk for developing these complications.
Most intestinal infections are caused
by contaminated food or water. Proper food preparation and good hygiene can
greatly decrease your chances of developing an intestinal infection.
Most cases of intestinal E. coli infection
can be treated at home. Symptoms generally resolve within a few days to a week.
Symptoms of Intestinal Infection Due to E. Coli
Symptoms of intestinal infection generally
begin between one and five days after you have been infected with E. coli. Symptoms can include:
- abdominal cramping
- sudden, severe watery diarrhea that may change to bloody stools
- loss of appetite/nausea
- vomiting (uncommon)
Symptoms can last anywhere from a few
days to more than a week.
Symptoms of a severe E. coli infection may include:
- bloody urine
- decreased urine output
- pale skin
Call your doctor if you experience
any of these severe symptoms.
According to Johns Hopkins Medical Center, about 8 percent of
those who are infected develop hemolytic
uremic syndrome (HUS), a condition in which the red blood cells are
damaged. This can lead to kidney failure, which can be life-threatening,
especially for children and the elderly. HUS generally begins about five to 10
days after the onset of diarrhea.
Causes of E. Coli Infection
People and animals normally have some
E. coli in their intestines,
but some strains cause infection. The bacteria that cause infection can enter into
your body in a number of ways.
Improper Food Handling
Whether food is prepared at home, in
a restaurant, or in a grocery store, unsafe handling and preparation can cause
contamination. Common causes of food poisoning include:
- failing to wash hands completely before preparing or eating food
- using utensils, cutting boards, or serving dishes that aren’t
clean, causing cross-contamination
- consuming dairy products or food containing mayonnaise that have
been left out too long
- consuming foods that haven’t been stored at the right
- consuming foods that aren’t cooked to the right temperature or
duration of time, especially meats and poultry
- consuming raw seafood products
- drinking unpasteurized milk
- consuming raw produce that hasn’t been properly washed
During the slaughtering process,
poultry and meat products can acquire bacteria from the animals’ intestines.
Poor sanitation can cause water to
contain bacteria from human or animal waste. You can get the infection from
drinking contaminated water or from swimming in it.
Person to Person
E. coli can spread when an
infected person doesn’t wash their hands after having a bowel movement. The
bacteria are then spread when that person touches someone or something else,
like food. Nursing homes, schools, and child care facilities are particularly
vulnerable to person-to-person spreading.
People who work with animals,
especially cows, goats, and sheep, are at increased risk for infection. Anyone
who touches animals or who works in an environment with animals should wash
their hands regularly and thoroughly.
When to See a Doctor
Intestinal infection can lead to
dehydration and serious complications, such as kidney failure and sometimes
death, if it’s not treated. You should see your doctor if:
- You have had diarrhea that isn’t getting better after four days,
or two days for an infant or child.
- You have a fever with diarrhea.
- Abdominal pain doesn’t get better after a bowel movement.
- There is pus or blood in your stool.
- You have trouble keeping liquids down.
- Vomiting has continued for more than 12 hours. For a baby under 3
months old, contact your pediatrician as soon as symptoms begin.
- You have symptoms of intestinal infection and have recently
traveled to a foreign country.
- You have symptoms of dehydration, such as a lack of urine,
extreme thirst, or dizziness.
A doctor can confirm an E. coli infection with a simple stool
How E. Coli Infection Is
In most cases, home care is all that’s
required to treat an E. coli
infection. Drink plenty of water, get lots of rest, and keep an eye out for
more severe symptoms that require a call to your doctor.
If you have bloody diarrhea or fever,
check with your doctor before taking over-the-counter antidiarrheal
medications. You should always check with your pediatrician before giving
medications to infants or children.
If dehydration is a concern, your
doctor may order hospitalization and intravenous fluids.
Most people show improvement within five
to seven days after the onset of an infection, and make a full recovery.
How to Prevent E. Coli
Practicing safe food behaviors can
decrease your chances of developing an intestinal infection due to E. coli. These include:
- washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly
- avoiding cross-contamination by using clean utensils, pans, and
- keeping raw meats away from other foods and away from other
- not defrosting meat on the counter
- always defrosting meat in the refrigerator or microwave
- refrigerating leftovers immediately
- drinking only pasteurized milk products (avoid raw milk)
- not preparing food if you have diarrhea
You should also make sure
that all meat is cooked properly. The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides guidelines for
cooking meat and poultry to proper temperatures to make sure all bacteria are
killed. You can use a meat thermometer to check that meat is cooked to these
- poultry: 165 degrees Fahrenheit
- ground meat, eggs: 160 degrees
- steaks, pork chops, roasts, fish, shellfish: 145 degrees
One of the easiest things
you can do to prevent an E. coli infection is to regularly wash your hands. You
should wash your hands before handling, serving, or eating food, and especially
after touching animals, working in animal environments, or using the bathroom.
Practicing good hygiene and following food safety guidelines can go a long way
to decreasing your risk of infection.