What Is Diphtheria?
Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that affects the mucous
membranes of the throat and nose. Although it spreads easily from one person to
another, diphtheria can be prevented through the use of vaccines.
Call your doctor right away if you believe you have diphtheria. If
it’s left untreated, diphtheria can cause severe damage to your kidneys,
nervous system, and heart. It’s fatal in about 3
percent of cases.
What Causes Diphtheria?
A type of bacteria called Corynebacterium
diphtheria causes diphtheria.
The condition is typically spread through person-to-person contact or through contact
with objects that have the bacteria on them, such as a cup or used tissue. You may also get diphtheria if
you’re around an infected person when they sneeze, cough, or blow their nose. Even
if an infected person doesn’t show any signs or symptoms of diphtheria, they’re
still able to transmit the bacterial infection for up to six weeks after the initial
The bacteria most commonly infect your nose and throat. Once
you’re infected, the bacteria release dangerous substances called toxins. The
toxins spread through your bloodstream and often cause a thick, gray coating to
form in the:
In some cases, these toxins can also damage other organs, including
the heart, brain and kidneys. This can lead to potentially life-threatening
complications, such as myocarditis,
or kidney failure.
What Are the Risk Factors for Diphtheria?
Children in the United States and Europe are routinely vaccinated
against diphtheria, so the condition is rare in these countries. However,
diphtheria is still fairly common in developing countries where immunization
rates are low. In these countries, children under age 5 and people over age 60
are particularly at risk of getting diphtheria.
People are also at an increased risk of contracting diphtheria if
- aren’t up to date on their vaccinations
- visit a country that doesn’t provide
- have an immune system disorder, such as AIDS
- live in unclean or crowded conditions
What Are the Symptoms of Diphtheria?
Signs of diphtheria often appear within two to five days after the
infection occurs. Some people don’t experience any symptoms, while others have mild
symptoms that are similar to those of the common cold.
The most visible and common symptom of diphtheria is a thick,
gray coating on the throat and tonsils. Other common symptoms include:
- a fever
- swollen glands in the neck
- a loud, barking cough
- a sore throat
- bluish skin
- a general feeling of uneasiness or discomfort
Additional symptoms may occur as the infection progresses,
- difficulty breathing or swallowing
- changes in vision
- slurred speech
- signs of shock, such as pale and cold skin,
sweating, and a rapid heartbeat
You may also develop cutaneous diphtheria, or diphtheria of the
skin, if you have poor hygiene or live in a tropical area. Diphtheria of the
skin usually causes ulcers and redness in the affected area.
How Is Diphtheria Diagnosed?
Your doctor will likely perform a physical exam to check for
swollen lymph nodes. They’ll also ask you about your medical history and the
symptoms you’ve been having.
Your doctor may believe that you have diphtheria if they see a
gray coating on your throat or tonsils. To confirm the diagnosis, they’ll take
a sample of the affected tissue and send it to a laboratory for testing. A
throat culture may also be taken if your doctor suspects diphtheria of the skin.
How Is Diphtheria Treated?
Diphtheria is a serious condition, so your doctor will want to
treat you quickly and aggressively.
The first step of treatment is an antitoxin injection. This is
used to counteract the toxin produced by the bacteria. Make sure to tell your
doctor if you’re allergic to the antitoxin. They may be able to give you small
doses of the antitoxin and gradually build up to higher amounts. Your doctor
will also prescribe antibiotics, such as erythromycin
to help clear up the infection.
During treatment, your doctor may have you stay in the hospital
so you can avoid passing your infection on to others.
Diphtheria is preventable with the use of antibiotics and
The vaccine for diphtheria is called DTaP. It’s usually given in
a single shot along with vaccines for pertussis and tetanus. The DTaP vaccine
is administered in a series of five shots. It’s given to children at the
- 2 months
- 4 months
- 6 months
- 12 to 18 months
- 4 to 6 years
In rare cases, a child might have an allergic reaction to the
vaccine. This can result in seizures or hives, which will later go away.
Vaccines only last for 10 years, so your child will need to be vaccinated
again around age 12. For adults, it’s recommended that you get a combined
diphtheria and tetanus booster shot. This is known as the tetanus-diphtheria (Td)
vaccine. Taking these steps can help prevent you and your child from getting
diphtheria in the future.