What is Crohn’s Disease
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel
disease (IBD). As the name implies, inflammatory bowel diseases cause
inflammation of the intestinal tract. The intestinal tract includes your mouth,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, and anus.
The inflammation and irritation of Crohn’s
disease can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but is most
common in the lower portion of the small intestine (the ileum). It is sometimes
called regional enteritis because diseased areas are often interspersed with
healthy areas—in other words, they only affect some regions of the GI tract.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic condition. That
means it persists for a long time. There is no cure, and it usually does not go
away on its own. Periods of remission, which are times when you have no
symptoms, are typical.
Who Gets Crohn’s Disease?
Crohn’s disease can occur in anyone at any
age. It affects men and women equally. It most commonly begins between the ages
of 13 and 30.
Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to
develop Crohn’s. If you have Crohn’s and smoke, you are likely to have more
severe symptoms. People of European Jewish
ancestry have an increased risk of Crohn’s, and African Americans have a
decreased risk. However, the number of African Americans developing this
disease seems to be increasing. Crohn’s is more common in developed nations and
in urban areas. As many as 700,000 Americans may be affected by Crohn’s disease,
according to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America.
The Types of Crohn’s Disease
There are several types of Crohn’s disease
depending on what part of the GI tract is involved.
- Ileocolitis affects the ileum and the colon.
This is the most common type of Crohn’s disease.
- Ileitis affects only the ileum.
- Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease affects the
stomach and the beginning of the small intestine (the duodenum).
- Jejunoileitis affects the upper half of the
small intestine (the jejunum and ileum).
- Crohn’s (granulomatous) colitis affects the
Other Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
There are a number of inflammatory bowel
diseases. The most common are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both
involve inflammation of the digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the
innermost lining of the colon and rectum. Crohn’s disease can affect any part
of the GI tract and often involves the entire thickness of the wall of the
intestinal tract. The two illnesses have similar symptoms—diarrhea, pain,
bloody stools—and similar treatments.
What Is the Outlook for Crohn’s Disease?
Crohn’s disease can vary from mild to severe to life
threatening. In children, Crohn’s can delay growth and development. In severe
cases, it can cause intestinal blockage or ulcers that can tunnel through the
intestinal wall into surrounding tissues and organs. These tunnels are called
fistulas. They often become infected. Most can be successfully treated with
medication, but some require surgery. Crohn’s disease frequently causes loss of
appetite and may interfere with absorption of nutrients leading to
If you have been diagnosed with Crohn’s disease, it is
important to work with your doctor to develop a treatment plan that works for
you. The symptoms of Crohn’s disease may come and go frequently, making it
difficult to know if a treatment is working. You should keep track and
communicate openly with your doctor. With proper treatment, most people with
Crohn’s can live a normal, active life.