COPD: Symptoms & Grades
symptoms can vary depending on the amount of damage in the lungs. Symptoms are
usually slow to develop and often don’t appear until significant damage has
occurred. Symptoms can also come and go and may vary in intensity.
Common COPD Symptoms
cough is how the body clears the airways and lungs of mucus and other irritants
and secretions. Mucus is usually clear. However, in people with COPD, it may be
a yellow color. Often the cough is worst first thing in the morning. You may
cough more when you exercise or smoke. The cough may persist every day, even if
there are no other symptoms of illness such as a cold or the flu.
you exhale through narrow or obstructed air passages, you will often hear a
whistling or musical sound. This is called wheezing. In people with COPD, it is
most often caused by excess mucus blocking the airways. Wheezing doesn’t necessarily
mean you have COPD. Wheezing is also a symptom of asthma and pneumonia.
Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea)
the airways in your lungs become inflamed and damaged and begin to constrict,
you might find it difficult to breathe or catch your breath. This COPD symptom
is most noticeable during increased physical activity. It can make routine
daily tasks, such as walking, doing simple household chores, dressing, or
bathing, more difficult. At its worst, it can even occur during rest.
you have difficulty breathing, you often can’t get enough oxygen to your blood
and to your muscles. Without the necessary oxygen, your body slows down and
fatigue sets in. You may also feel tired because your lungs are working extra
hard to get the oxygen in and the carbon dioxide out, thus draining your
Other COPD Symptoms
Frequent Respiratory Infections
people with COPD have greater difficulty clearing their lungs of bacteria, viruses,
pollutants, dust, and other irritants, they can be at greater risk for lung
infections such as colds, flu, and pneumonia. Though it’s difficult to avoid
infections altogether, practicing good hygiene and getting the correct
vaccinations can reduce your risk.
you’ve had COPD for a long time, you may notice that you’ve been losing weight.
The extra energy your body requires to breathe and get enough air in and out of
the lungs may be burning more calories than your body is taking in, causing you
to lose weight. Weight loss may also occur because fatigue and shortness of
breath make eating difficult.
Advanced COPD Symptoms
Morning headaches can occur
due to higher levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Swollen feet and ankles can
occur due to increased stress on the heart, which has to work
harder to pump blood through the damaged lungs.
Grades of COPD
are four grades of COPD, ranging progressively from mild to very severe. Each
grade brings with it different symptoms, and performance on pulmonary function
tests (PFTs) typically decreases as the grades progress.
You only get breathless during or after strenuous exercise.
You get short of breath when hurrying across level surfaces or when walking on a slight incline. There’s not usually
a cough or mucus. Many people do not even realize they have a lung problem at
this stage. Results of PFT are usually 80 percent or more of the predicted
response, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.
You may walk slower than other people your age on level surfaces. You may become breathless when walking on level surfaces and have to stop to catch your breath. You may or may not have a cough or sputum. Many people first seek medical care
at this point because of the symptoms. PFT results are 50-80 percent of the
You stop to regain your breath after only a few minutes of walking on a level surface. Again, you may
or may not have a cough, sputum, or both. Exercise is very difficult at this
point. Fatigue is increased, and quality of life begins to suffer. Results of
PFTs are 30-50 percent of the predicted response.
You are too breathless to leave the house. You may become breathless during everyday activities, such as dressing and undressing. The most severe stage of COPD, this brings with it a significantly reduced quality
of life because of shortness of breath. Trouble breathing may even be
life-threatening during some episodes. Performance on PFTs are less than 30
percent of the expected response.
is a serious condition that affects life in many ways. Because it is a
progressive disease, signs and symptoms may not be noticeable until the
condition has considerably worsened. If you are having trouble breathing or
notice an unexplained cough, see your doctor for a medical opinion.