What Is Child Emotional/Psychological Abuse?
Child emotional/psychological abuse is defined as behaviors, speech, and actions of parents or other caregivers that have a negative mental impact on children. It can also be referred to as child neglect.
The U. S. government defines emotional abuse as neglect in which there is a “pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth” (HHS, 2011).
Examples of abuse include:
- threatening violence (even without carrying out threats)
- allowing children to witness the physical or emotional abuse of another
- allowing children to use illegal drugs
It is very difficult to know how common child emotional abuse is. A wide range of behaviors can be considered abusive, and all forms are considered underreported. In 2007, the U. S. government estimated that 7.1 percent of children were victims of emotional abuse or neglect (HHS, 2007).
Many reported cases of child abuse come from single-parent families living in poverty. However, child abuse can happen in any family.
What Are the Signs of Child Emotional Abuse?
Signs of emotional abuse in a child may include:
- being fearful of parent
- saying they hate the parent
- talking badly about themselves (“I’m stupid”)
- seeming emotionally immature when compared to peers
- exhibiting sudden changes in speech, such as stuttering
- experiencing sudden change in behavior, such as doing poorly in school
Signs in the parent/caregiver include:
- showing little or no regard for the child
- talking badly about the child
- not touching or holding the child affectionately
- not tending to the child’s medical needs
Who Should I Tell?
If you or someone you know is being emotionally abused, contact your local children or family services departments. Ask to speak to a counselor. You can also call the National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-4ACHILD (1-800-422-4453).
In many situations, you can report suspected child abuse without giving your name.
If it is not possible to contact a family services agency, ask someone you trust, such as a teacher, relative, doctor, or clergyperson, for help.
Some forms of abuse, such as yelling, may not be immediately dangerous. However, other forms, such as allowing children to use drugs, can be instantly harmful. If you have any reason to believe you or a child you know is in danger, call 911 immediately.
No person deserves to be abused. If you are worried about what will happen to the child’s parents or caregivers, remember that getting them help is the best way to show them you love them.
What Can I Do if This Is Happening to Me?
If you feel your parents or caregivers are abusive in their behavior, or even their way of talking to you, you can get help right away. Contact the National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-4ACHILD (422-4453) for information on free help in your area. No child deserves abuse. If you are worried about what will happen to your parents, remember that getting them help is the best way to show them you love them.
What Can I Do if I Think This Is Happening to Someone I Know?
Many family services departments allow callers to report suspected abuse anonymously. Call the National Child Abuse Hotline at 1-800-4-ACHILD (1-800-422-4453) for more information.
Child abuse occurs in all types of families. However, reported abuse appears to be most common in families that:
- have financial difficulties
- are dealing with single parenthood
- are experiencing or experienced a divorce
You might be able to help a family you are concerned about by offering to babysit or run errands. However, do not put yourself at risk or do anything that would increase risk for the child you are concerned about.
What Can I Do if I Think I May Be Harming My Child in This Way?
Even the best parents have yelled at their children or used angry words in times of stress. That’s not necessarily abusive. However, you should consider calling a counselor if you notice a pattern in your behavior.
Parenting is the toughest and most important job you will ever do. Seek the resources to do it well. For example, change your behavior if you regularly use alcohol or illegal drugs. These habits can affect how well you care for your children.
Long-Term Effects of Emotional Abuse
Child emotional abuse is linked to poor mental development and difficulty making and keeping strong relationships. It can lead to problems in school and at work, and to criminal behavior.
A recent study at Purdue University reported that adults who were victims of emotional or physical abuse as children have a higher risk for developing cancer (HealthDay News, 2012).
Adults who were victims of emotional abuse as children have a higher instance of alcohol and drug abuse. Children who are abused, emotionally or physically, and do not seek help can become abusers themselves as adults.
Is It Possible for a Child Who Is Abused in This Way to Recover?
It is completely possible for a child who has been emotionally abused to recover. Seeking help for the child victim is the first and most important step. The next effort should be to get help for the abuser and other family members.
It may be necessary to move the child into foster care as the family works to resolve the problems created by abuse.