What Is Body Lice Infestation?
An infestation of body lice occurs when a certain type of
lice invade the body and clothing. Lice are parasitic insects that feed on
human blood and can infest the head, body, and pubic area.
There are three types of lice that infest humans:
- body louse (Pediculus
- head louse (Pediculus
- pubic louse (Pthirus
Lice that are found on the body are different from lice
found on the head or on the pubic area. Body lice are only found on humans on the
Infestations are generally spread by close contact with
other people and are typically found in areas of poor hygiene and crowding.
Other animals or pets, like dogs and cats, don’t play a role in spreading human
lice. Humans are the body louse’s only host and lice will die within five to
seven days if they fall off of a person.
Good hygiene and regularly washing clothing and bed linens
are generally enough to treat and prevent infestations of body lice.
What Causes Infestations by Body Lice?
The body louse is larger than other types of lice. They lay
their eggs and leave waste on skin and in clothing. Lice can crawl, but they can’t
fly, hop, or jump.
Infestations occur worldwide and are spread via close
person-to-person contact or through used bed linens, towels, and clothing. In
general, infestations of body lice are limited to people who live in unhygienic
or crowded conditions and who don’t have access to clean clothing.
Recognizing the Signs of Body Lice
Common symptoms of a body lice infestation include:
- intense itching (pruritus)
- rash caused by an allergic reaction to body lice
- red bumps on the skin
- thickened or darkened skin, usually near the
waist or groin, if the lice have been there for a long time
How Is Body Lice Infestation Diagnosed?
An infestation by body lice is typically diagnosed by
looking at the skin and clothing and observing eggs and crawling lice. The
insects are about the size of a sesame seed. They are big enough to see with
the naked eye, but a magnifying lens can be used to help find them. The eggs
(called nits) are usually found in the seams of clothing.
Ridding Your Body and Home of Body Lice
A body lice infestation is normally treated through improved
personal hygiene and regular changes of clean, washed clothing.
All clothing, bed linens, and towels used by the infested
person should be washed with hot water (at least 130 degrees) and then dried in
a machine with hot air.
Medicines that kill lice, called pediculicides, may be used
to treat body lice infestation. However, this is usually not necessary if
clothing is laundered and personal hygiene is maintained. Lice-killing products
may be toxic to humans, so be sure to follow the instructions carefully.
What Are the Complications of Body Lice Infestation?
Body lice usually don’t cause other problems. However, the
following complications may occur:
The itchiness may lead to scratching, which may cause cuts
and sores. These open wounds are at risk of being infected by bacteria.
Changes in Skin
In cases of prolonged infestation, skin can become dark and
thick, especially along the midsection.
Spread of Disease
Rarely, body lice can also carry other, uncommon, bacterial
diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, body lice
have caused epidemics of typhus and louse-borne relapsing fever (a bacterial
illness resulting from louse bites). This typically occurs in places where war,
poverty, or climate has made good hygiene extremely difficult.
Tips to Prevent Body Lice Infestation
Body lice usually infest people who aren’t able to bathe or
change clothes regularly. Good personal hygiene and changing into clean clothes
at least once a week should be enough to prevent body lice infestation.
You should also make sure not to share clothing, bed linens,
or towels with someone who is infested. If you discover body lice, machine
washing and drying all infested clothing and bedding in hot water should
prevent body lice from returning. Family members or those who share living
areas with you may also want to be treated.