Are Ankle Ulcers?
An ulcer is an open sore or lesion on the body that is slow to
heal or keeps returning. It may be painful. Ulcers result from skin tissue
breaking down. There are three different types of ulcers: venous stasis,
neurotrophic, and arterial ulcers.
According to the Cleveland
Clinic, venous stasis is the most common type of ulcer and accounts for
between 80 and 90 percent of ulcers affecting the lower legs. Venous stasis ulcers
are the most common type of ankle ulcers.
Causes Ankle Ulcers?
Venous stasis ulcers are typically due to a condition called
venous hypertension or chronic venous insufficiency. The blood doesn’t flow
from the lower legs back up to the heart as it should, and causes a build-up of
pressure in the veins. The additional pressure can lead to an ulceration on the
skin. These ulcers usually form on the inside of the leg, just above the ankle.
It’s unknown exactly how venous hypertension causes the ulcers,
but many doctors believe it also causes a decrease in blood flow to the
capillaries of the leg. This produces a build-up of white blood cells. The
accumulation of white blood cells restricts oxygen to the tissue, which damages
it and forms the ulcer.
Another theory is that venous hypertension causes cells of the
body to leak into the skin and influence cellular growth. This process
interferes with the repair of damaged tissue.
Is at Risk for Ankle Ulcers?
You may have a higher risk of developing venous stasis ulcers if
you have or had:
- previous leg swelling
- history of blood clots
- varicose veins
- history of inflammatory diseases
If you have a family history of ulcers, it’s possible you will
develop them as well. Smoking may raise your risk of developing ankle ulcers because
it interferes with the flow of oxygen through the bloodstream.
Are the Symptoms of Ankle Ulcers?
Venous stasis ulcers aren’t always painful, but they might slightly
burn or itch. They’re usually red, with yellowish skin over them. An infected
ulcer may leak yellow or green fluid. The skin may feel warm or hot to the
touch, and the area surrounding the ulcer may be swollen and discolored. Your legs
may ache, and, depending on how swollen your ankle is, the skin may feel very
tight and have a shiny appearance.
How Are Ankle Ulcers Diagnosed?
Your doctor will begin by asking you about your medical history
and symptoms. Make sure to keep a record of all your symptoms because it will
help your doctor reach the proper diagnosis.
If you’ve had the ulcer for a long time, your doctor may want to
take a tissue sample for a biopsy to make sure there’s no cancer. MRIs, CT
scans, and radiography also commonly check the depth of the ulcer and if it’s
affected bone. Your doctor will also check your ulcer for infection.
Are the Treatments for Ankle Ulcers?
The primary goal of venous stasis ulcer treatment is to heal the
wound, treat any infection present, and relieve pain. Compression therapy to
help with swelling is the usual treatment for venous stasis ankle ulcers. Compression
helps speed the healing process and also aids in the prevention of repeated
Compression stockings, wraps, or even an elastic bandage wrapped
around the leg up to the knee can help. You and your doctor can determine the compression
method that will work best for you and your type of ulcer.
Your doctor may prescribe medications such as pentoxifylline and
aspirin if compression treatment isn’t the right treatment for you. These
medications can be very successful in treating ulcers. You may need to take
diuretics for a short time if you have significant swelling.
It’s important that you take all prescribed medication as
directed. Keep the ulcer area clean and change the dressing on the ulcer as
instructed to encourage proper healing. There are several types of dressings
you might use for an ulcer, including antimicrobial, collagen, composite, and
skin substitute dressings. Your doctor can explain the advantages of each type
and advise you on which dressing is best for your condition.
Always drink plenty of fluids, eat a healthy diet, and get
adequate rest and exercise. Good overall health will speed your healing
Can I Prevent Ankle Ulcers?
One way to prevent the development of venous stasis ulcers is to
elevate your legs above your heart for at least 30 minutes, several times a day.
Limit prolonged standing or sitting. This helps reduce the pressure and
swelling that can cause venous stasis ulcers, as well as help aid in blood
Try to elevate your legs in bed at night if possible. Also, try
to limit salt in your diet and check your blood pressure regularly for any
Sometimes losing weight can relieve some of the pressure on your
legs. Check with your doctor to see if they believe weight loss is appropriate