What Is Acidosis?
When your body fluids contain too much acid, this is known as
acidosis. Acidosis occurs when your kidneys and lungs can’t keep your body’s pH
in balance. Many of the body’s processes produce acid. For instance, your lungs
and kidneys can usually compensate for slight pH imbalances, but problems with
these organs can lead to excess acid in your body.
The acidity of your blood is measured by determining its pH. A
lower pH means that your blood is more acidic, while a higher pH means that
your blood is more basic. The pH of your blood should be around 7.4. According
to the American
Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), acidosis is characterized by a
pH of 7.35 or lower. While seemingly slight, these differences in numbers can
be serious. Acidosis can lead to numerous health issues, and it can even be
Causes of Acidosis
The two types of acidosis are metabolic and respiratory.
Respiratory acidosis occurs when too much CO2 builds up in the
body. Normally the lungs remove CO2 while you breathe. However, sometimes your
body can’t get rid of enough CO2. This may happen because of:
- chronic airway conditions, like asthma
- injury to the chest
- obesity, which can make breathing difficult
- sedative misuse
- overuse of alcohol
- muscle weakness in the chest
- problems with the nervous system
- deformed chest structure
Metabolic acidosis starts in the kidneys instead of the lungs. It
occurs when they can’t eliminate enough acid or when they get rid of too much
base. There are three major forms of metabolic acidosis:
acidosis occurs in people with diabetes that’s poorly controlled. If
your body lacks enough insulin, ketones build up in your body and acidify your
acidosis results from a loss of sodium bicarbonate. This base helps
to keep the blood neutral. Both diarrhea and vomiting can cause this type of
acidosis occurs when there’s too much lactic acid in your body.
Many things can cause a buildup of lactic acid. These include chronic alcohol
use, heart failure, cancer, seizures, liver failure, prolonged lack of oxygen,
and low blood sugar. Even prolonged exercise can lead to lactic acid buildup.
Factors that can contribute to your risk of acidosis include:
- a high-fat diet that’s low in carbohydrates
- kidney failure
- aspirin or methanol poisoning
Symptoms of Acidosis
Both respiratory and metabolic acidosis share many symptoms.
However, the symptoms of acidosis vary based on its cause.
Some of the common symptoms of respiratory acidosis include the
- fatigue or drowsiness
- becoming tired easily
- shortness of breath
Some of the common
symptoms of metabolic acidosis include the following:
- rapid and shallow breathing
- lack of appetite
- increased heart rate
- breath that smells fruity, which is a sign of
diabetic acidosis (ketoacidosis)
Tests and Diagnosis
If you think you may have acidosis, go to the doctor immediately.
Early diagnosis can make a big difference in your recovery.
Doctors diagnose acidosis with a series of blood tests. An
arterial blood gas looks at the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your
blood. It also reveals your blood pH. A basic metabolic panel checks your
kidney functioning and your pH balance. It also measures your calcium, protein,
blood sugar, and electrolyte levels. If these tests are taken together, they
can identify different types of acidosis.
If you’re diagnosed with respiratory acidosis, your doctor will
want to check the health of your lungs. This may involve a chest X-ray or a
pulmonary function test.
If metabolic acidosis is suspected, you’ll need to give a urine
sample. Doctors will check the pH to see if you are properly eliminating acids
and bases. Additional tests may be needed to determine the cause of your
Doctors usually need to know what is causing your acidosis to
determine how to treat it. However, some treatments can be used for any type of
acidosis. For example, your doctor may give you sodium bicarbonate (baking
soda) to raise the pH of your blood. This can be done either by mouth or in an
intravenous (IV) drip. The treatment for other types of acidosis can involve treating
Treatments for this condition are usually designed to help your
lungs. For example, you may be given drugs to dilate your airway. You might
also be given oxygen or a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device.
The CPAP device can help you breathe if you have an obstructed airway or muscle
The specific types of metabolic acidosis each have their own treatments.
People with hyperchloremic acidosis may be given oral sodium bicarbonate.
Acidosis from kidney failure may be treated with sodium citrate. Diabetics with
ketoacidosis receive IV fluids and insulin to balance out their pH. Lactic
acidosis treatment might include bicarbonate supplements, IV fluids, oxygen,
or, antibiotics, depending on the cause.
You can’t completely prevent acidosis. However, there are some
things you can do to lower your risk.
You can do the following
to reduce your risk of respiratory acidosis:
- Take sedatives as prescribed and never mix them
- Stop smoking. Smoking can damage your lungs and
make breathing less effective.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can make it
harder for you to breathe.
You can do the following
to reduce your risk of metabolic acidosis:
- Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water and other
- Keep control of your diabetes. If you manage
your blood sugar levels well, you can avoid ketoacidosis.
- Stop drinking alcohol. Chronic drinking can
increase the buildup of lactic acid.
Without prompt treatment, acidosis may lead to the following
- kidney stones
- chronic kidney problems
- kidney failure
- bone disease
- delayed growth
Some people fully recover from acidosis. Other people have
problems with organ function, respiratory failure, and kidney failure. Severe
acidosis can cause shock or even death.
How well you recover from acidosis depends on its cause. Fast, proper
treatment also strongly influences your recovery.