Prostate Cancer supplements
Prostate Cancer

  • Vitamin D, often called the "sunshine vitamin," is an important nutrient. Its active form, called calcitriol, behaves like a hormone in the body. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in supporting and maintaining bone health. There are few natural food ...
  • The Romans used lime (calcium oxide), clacked lime (calcium hydroxide), and hydraulic cement in construction works. Calcium (Latin calx , meaning "lime") was first isolated in its metallic form by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808 through the electrolysis of a mixture of calcium oxide and mercury oxide. Chelated calcium refers to the way in which calcium is chemically combined with another substance. Calcium citrate is an example of such a chelated preparation. Calcium may also be combined with other substances to form preparations such as calcium lactate or calcium gluconate. Calcium carbonate can be refined from limestone, natural elements of the earth, or from shell sources, such as oyster. Shell sources are often described on the label as a "natural" source. Calcium carbonate from oyster shells is not "refined" and can contain variable amounts of lead. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body and has several important functions. More than 99% of total body calcium is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports the structure. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle, and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is needed for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is maintained in body fluid and tissues so that these vital body processes function efficiently. The body gets the calcium it needs in two ways. One method is dietary intake of calcium-rich foods including dairy products, which have the highest concentration per serving of highly absorbable calcium, and dark, leafy greens or dried beans, which have varying amounts of absorbable calcium. Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium. The other way the body obtains calcium is by extracting it from bones. This happens when blood levels of calcium drop too low and dietary calcium is not sufficient. Ideall...
  • Red clover is a legume, which like soy contains "phytoestrogens" (plant-based chemicals that are similar to estrogen and may act in the body like estrogen or may actually block the effects of estrogen). Red clover was traditionally used to treat asthma, pertussis (whooping cough), cancer, and gout. In modern times, isoflavone extracts of red clover are most often used to treat menopausal symptoms, as an alternative hormone replacement therapy, for high cholesterol, or to prevent osteoporosis. However, at this time, there are no high-quality human studies supporting the use of red clover for any medical condition.
  • WARNING : THIS PRODUCT HAS BEEN RECALLED FROM THE U.S. MARKET AND SHOULD NOT BE USED. PC-SPES® is an herbal combination product that was produced and marketed until early 2002 by BotanicLab, Inc. for the treatment of prostate cancer. The initials "PC" stand for "prostate cancer" and " spes " is Latin for hope. Based on a Chinese herbal formula, the ingredients of PC-SPES® were officially listed as including Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) and seven other herbs: Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum, mum, Chu-hua), Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom, Ling Zhi), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Isatis indigotica Fort (Da Qing Ye, dyer's wood), Panax pseudo-ginseng (San Qi), Rabdosia rubescens (rubescens, Dong Ling Cao), and Scutellaria baicalensis (skullcap, Huang-chin). In low quality studies, PC-SPES® was observed to reduce serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, reduce evidence of metastatic disease, diminish pain, and improve quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. This evidence was viewed as promising by major U.S. cancer centers. However, in early 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program issued a warning to consumers to avoid using PC-SPES® based on findings that the product contained the anticoagulant ("blood thinner") warfarin. Bleeding disorders had previously been reported with PC-SPES®. The manufacturer voluntarily recalled the product. Samples of PC-SPES® were later found to contain variable amounts of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin, the synthetic estrogen diethystilbesterol (DES), and the estrogen ethinyl estradiol. A study published in the September 2002 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute analyzed lots of PC-SPES® manufactured between 1996 and 2001. This evaluation found variable ingredients in PC-SPES® between lots, with higher levels of indomethacin and DES after 1999. These post-1999 samples...
  • Pectins are gel-forming polysaccharides from plant cell walls, especially apple and citrus fruits. Pectins are a type of viscous dietary fiber and vary in the length of their polysaccharide chains, from 300-1,000 monosaccharides. Although pectins are not digestible by humans, modified citrus pectin (MCP) is altered to increase their absorbability. Pectin from citrus rinds is depolymerized through a treatment with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. The resultant smaller molecule is comprised predominantly of D-polygalacturonates and may be more easily absorbed by the human digestive system. Modified citrus pectin is most often used as an adjuvant to cancer therapy to prevent metastasis. Modified citrus pectin is still considered an experimental therapy for cancer and should be used as an adjuvant to standard cancer therapy under medical supervision. Pectins, including modified citrus pectin, have also been investigated for possible cardiovascular benefits, including lowering cholesterol and reducing atherosclerosis. Clinical studies are needed in these areas. Some experts caution that citrus pectin and all "modified" citrus pectins may not have the same effects as modified citrus pectin. Citrus pectin does not have the same short polysaccharide chains as modified citrus pectin, and "modified" pectin could indicate that the pectin has been altered in some way, but not necessarily have the shorter polysaccharide chains.
  • Vitamin D is found in many dietary sources such as fish, eggs, fortified milk, and cod liver oil. The sun also contributes significantly to the daily production of vitamin D, and as little as 10 minutes of exposure is thought to be enough to prevent deficiencies. The term "vitamin D" refers to several different forms of this vitamin. Two forms are important in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Vitamin D2 is synthesized by plants. Vitamin D3 is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Foods may be fortified with vitamin D2 or D3. The major biologic function of vitamin D is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and maintain strong bones. Recently, research also suggests vitamin D may provide protection from osteoporosis, hypertension (high blood pressure), cancer, and several autoimmune diseases. Rickets and osteomalacia are classic vitamin D deficiency diseases. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, which results in skeletal deformities. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, which results in muscular weakness in addition to weak bones. Populations who may be at a high risk for vitamin D deficiencies include the elderly, obese individuals, exclusively breastfed infants, and those who have limited sun exposure. Also, individuals who have fat malabsorption syndromes (e.g., cystic fibrosis) or inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease) are at risk.
  • Flaxseed and its derivative flaxseed oil/linseed oil are rich sources of the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which is a biologic precursor to omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid. Although omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, evidence from human trials is mixed regarding the efficacy of flaxseed products for coronary artery disease or hyperlipidemia. The lignan constituents of flaxseed (not flaxseed oil) possesses in vitro anti-oxidant and possible estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist properties, prompting theories of efficacy for the treatment of breast cancer. However, there is not sufficient human evidence to make a recommendation. As a source of fiber mucilage, oral flaxseed (not flaxseed oil) may possess laxative properties, although only one human trial has been conducted for this indication. In large doses, or when taken with inadequate water, flaxseed may precipitate bowel obstruction via a mass effect. The effects of flaxseed on blood glucose levels are not clear, although hyperglycemic effects have been reported in one case series. Flaxseed oil contains only the alpha-linolenic acid component of flaxseed, and not the fiber or lignan components. Therefore, flaxseed oil may share the purported lipid-lowering properties of flaxseed, but not the proposed laxative or anti-cancer abilities.
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