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Alternative Therapies could include:
The practice of acupuncture originated in China 5,000 years ago. Today it is widely used throughout the world and is one of the main pillars of Chinese medicine. There are many different varieties of the practice of acupuncture, both in the Orient and in the West. The most common forms available to westerners are as follows. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usually combines acupuncture with Chinese herbs. Classical acupuncture (also known as five element acupuncture) uses a different needling technique and relies on acupuncture independent of the use of herbs. Japanese acupuncture uses smaller needles than the other varieties. Medical acupuncture refers to acupuncture practiced by a conventional medical doctor. Auricular acupuncture treats the entire body through acupuncture points in the ears only. Electroacupuncture uses electrical currents attached to acupuncture needles. Aside from needles, other methods of stimulation are also considered forms of "acupuncture." These include the use of heat from the burning of herbs placed on specific points ("moxibustion") and the placement of herbal pastes on specific points. Research on the effectiveness of acupuncture has special challenges. These include the diversity of approaches, the practice of individualizing treatment for each patient, differing skill levels between practitioners, and difficulty separating out the effects of acupuncture from placebo effects (i.e., how the patient's beliefs and expectations affect his/her perception of symptoms). Based on acupuncture's long history of use as well as the limited research available, both the World Health Organization and the National Institutes of Health have identified many conditions for which it may be recommended. However, many common uses do not yet have formal scientific evidence to support them.
Water has been used medicinally for thousands of years, with traditions rooted in ancient China, Japan, India, Rome, Greece, the Americas, and the Middle East. There are references to the therapeutic use of mineral water in the Old Testament. During the Middle Ages, bathing fell out of favor due to health concerns, but by the 17th century, "taking the waters" at hot springs and spas became popular across Europe (and later in the United States). Hydrotherapy is broadly defined as the external application of water in any form or temperature (hot, cold, steam, liquid, ice) for healing purposes. It may include immersion in a bath or body of water (such as the ocean or a pool), use of water jets, douches, application of wet towels to the skin, or water birth. These approaches have been used for the relief of various diseases and injuries, or for general well being. There are other therapies that may include the use of water as a part of a technique, but are not included in this review, such as colonic irrigation/enemas, nasal irrigation, physical therapy in pools, steam inhalation/humidifiers, drinking of mineral water/"enriched" water, coffee infusions, aquatic yoga, aquatic massage (including Watsu®), or aromatherapy/baths with added essential oils. Modern hydrotherapy originated in 19th century Europe with the development of spas for "water cure" ailments, ranging from anxiety to pneumonia to back pain. Father Sebastian Kneipp, a 19th century Bavarian monk, spurred a movement to recognize the benefits of hydrotherapy. His methods were later adopted by Benedict Lust who immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1896, and founded an American school of naturopathic medicine. Lust claimed to have cured himself of tuberculosis with Kneipp's methods, and hydrotherapy was included as a component of naturopathic medicine. In modern times, a wide variety of water-related therapies are used, some of which are described below. Sitz bath : A Sitz bath is administere...