Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since the Ming Dynasty of China. In the 1980s, the Japanese government approved the use of PSK for treating several types of cancers. By 1984, it ranked 19th on the list of the world's most commercially successful drugs with annual sales of $255 million. PSK is obtained from cultured mycelia of the Coriolus versicolor , a mushroom thought to have antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor properties. PSK extracts are available for clinical use in Japan, where it is widely used for cancer immunochemotherapy. In Japan, PSK is currently used as a cancer treatment, in conjunction with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Its active ingredient can be administered as a tea or in oral capsule form. In the United States, a similar product is labeled simply Coriolus versicolor extract. Coriolus versicolor is available in limited supply in U.S. markets. In Japan, PSK is currently the best-selling cancer medicine.
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, which is involved in vital metabolic processes in the body and is necessary for normal cell function, growth, and energy production. Small amounts of riboflavin are present in most animal and plant tissues. Healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely need riboflavin supplements. Especially good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk (and other dairy products), eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver, and green vegetables (such as asparagus or broccoli). Intake may be lower in vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. Riboflavin is often used as a tracer of medication compliance in the treatment of patients with alcohol dependence, mental disorders, and other conditions. Urinary riboflavin levels may be measured in order to determine the level of compliance.