Epilepsy supplements

  • Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, was originally discovered in ox ( Bos taurus ) bile and was named after taurus, or bull. A nonessential amino acid-like compound, taurine is found in high abundance in the tissues of many animals, especially sea animals, and in much lower concentrations in plants, fungi, and some bacteria. As an amine, taurine is important in several metabolic processes of the body, including stabilizing cell membranes in electrically active tissues, such as the brain and heart. It also has functions in the gallbladder, eyes, and blood vessels, and may have some antioxidant and detoxifying properties. Taurine is a constituent of some energy drinks, including Red Bull®. Numerous clinical trials suggest Red Bull® and similar energy drinks may be effective in reducing fatigue, and improving mood and endurance. However, these drinks contain other ingredients, which may also offer benefit in these areas, including caffeine and glucuronolactone. The effect of taurine alone in energy drinks has not been studied. Thus, the effectiveness of taurine in energy drinks is unclear and further research is still required. Several taurine derivatives are being investigated for medical use, such as taltrimide as an antiepileptic drug. Other taurine derivatives in various stages of development include acamprosate (antialcoholic), tauromustine (anticancer), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (liver disorders). The efficacy of taurine has been investigated for diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), cystic fibrosis, liver disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and nutritional support. Although promising in many fields, additional study is needed before a firm recommendation can be made for these indications. Taurine is added to many infant formulas based on the decreased ability to form taurine from cysteine in this population.
  • There are over 2,000 species of Euphorbia in the world, ranging from annual weeds to trees. Most originate in Africa and Madagascar, and a significant percentage of these are succulent. All contain latex and have a unique flower structure. Native Americans used the plant for many medicinal purposes including treatment of skin infections (applied on the skin) and gonorrhea (internally). Traditionally, Euphorbia species have been used internally as laxatives and externally for rheumatism and skin conditions. However, nearly all the Euphorbias are poisonous and exude an acrid milky fluid when broken. Euphorbia is stated to possess antitussive, antifungal and antitumor properties. There is mixed evidence showing euphorbia's effectiveness for chronic bronchitis, eczema, epilepsy and oral inflammation. Small doses tend to be expectorant and diaphoretic. Larger doses produce emesis (vomiting) usually without much pain or spasm, nausea or dizziness. The roots and leaves of euphorbia are a strong laxative. Petty spurge sap has traditionally been used as a wart cure.
  • Bacopa ( Bacopa monnieri ) leaf extract is called brahmi in Ayurvedic medicine and is widely used in India, especially for enhancing memory, analgesia (pain relief), and epilepsy. Bacopa has traditionally been used to treat asthma, hoarseness, and mental disorders, to help improve mental performance, epilepsy, and as a nerve tonic, cardiotonic (heart tonic), and diuretic (increases urine flow). Bacopa was prominently mentioned in Indian texts as early as the 6th Century. Most research on bacopa has concentrated on its effects on learning. Bacopa may also be helpful in managing pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but clinical evidence is lacking.
  • Caprylic acid is an eight-carbon fatty acid naturally found in palm and coconut oil, and in the milk of humans and bovines (cows). Caprylic acid is classified as a medium-chain fatty acid and chemically known as octanoic acid. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved caprylic acid with generally recognizable as safe (GRAS) status. It is used as parenteral nutrition in patients who require nutrition supplementation, as well as in some drugs, foods, and cosmetics. Nutritionists often recommend caprylic acid for use in treating candidiasis (yeast infection) and bacterial infections. However, there is insufficient clinical data available to support the used of caprylic acid for any claimed therapeutic uses.
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Vitamin E exists in eight different forms ("isomers"): alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. Dosing and daily allowance recommendations for vitamin E are often provided in Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE) to account for the different biological activities of the various forms of vitamin E, or in International Units (IU), which food and supplement labels may use. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. The natural forms are usually labeled with the letter "d" (for example, d-gamma-tocopherol), whereas synthetic forms are labeled "dl" (for example, dl-alpha-tocopherol). Vitamin E has been proposed for the prevention or treatment of numerous health conditions, often based on its antioxidant properties. However, aside from the treatment of vitamin E deficiency (which is rare), there are no clearly proven medicinal uses of vitamin E supplementation beyond the recommended daily allowance. There is ongoing research in numerous diseases, particularly in cancer and heart disease. Recent concerns have been raised about the safety of vitamin E supplementation, particularly in high doses. An increased risk of bleeding has been proposed, particularly in patients taking blood-thinning agents such as warfarin, heparin, or aspirin, and in patients with vitamin K deficiency. Recent evidence suggests that regular use of high-dose vitamin E supplements may increase the risk of death (from "all causes") by a small amount, although a different study found no effects on mortality in women who took vitamin E daily. Caution is warranted.
back to top
General Drug Tools
General Drug Tools view all tools
Health Management
Health Management Programs view all programs
Tools for
Healthy Living
Tools for Healthy Living view all tools
Search Tools
Search Tools view all tools
Insurance Plan Tools
Insurance Plan Tools view all tools