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Alternative Therapies could include:
Water has been used medicinally for thousands of years, with traditions rooted in ancient China, Japan, India, Rome, Greece, the Americas, and the Middle East. There are references to the therapeutic use of mineral water in the Old Testament. During the Middle Ages, bathing fell out of favor due to health concerns, but by the 17th century, "taking the waters" at hot springs and spas became popular across Europe (and later in the United States). Hydrotherapy is broadly defined as the external application of water in any form or temperature (hot, cold, steam, liquid, ice) for healing purposes. It may include immersion in a bath or body of water (such as the ocean or a pool), use of water jets, douches, application of wet towels to the skin, or water birth. These approaches have been used for the relief of various diseases and injuries, or for general well being. There are other therapies that may include the use of water as a part of a technique, but are not included in this review, such as colonic irrigation/enemas, nasal irrigation, physical therapy in pools, steam inhalation/humidifiers, drinking of mineral water/"enriched" water, coffee infusions, aquatic yoga, aquatic massage (including Watsu®), or aromatherapy/baths with added essential oils. Modern hydrotherapy originated in 19th century Europe with the development of spas for "water cure" ailments, ranging from anxiety to pneumonia to back pain. Father Sebastian Kneipp, a 19th century Bavarian monk, spurred a movement to recognize the benefits of hydrotherapy. His methods were later adopted by Benedict Lust who immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1896, and founded an American school of naturopathic medicine. Lust claimed to have cured himself of tuberculosis with Kneipp's methods, and hydrotherapy was included as a component of naturopathic medicine. In modern times, a wide variety of water-related therapies are used, some of which are described below. Sitz bath : A Sitz bath is administere...
Throughout history, many cultures have used imagery for therapeutic purposes, including the Navajo, ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese. Religions such as Hinduism and Judaism have also practiced imagery. In modern times, the term "guided imagery" may be used to refer to a number of techniques, including metaphor, story telling, fantasy, game playing, dream interpretation, drawing, visualization, active imagination, or direct suggestion using imagery. Therapeutic guided imagery may be used to help patients relax and focus on images associated with personal issues they are confronting. Experienced guided imagery practitioners may use an interactive, objective guiding style to encourage patients to find solutions to problems by exploring their existing inner resources. Biofeedback is sometimes used with imagery to enhance meditative relaxation. Interactive guided imagery groups, classes, workshops, and seminars are available, as well as books and audiotapes.
Various forms of therapeutic superficial tissue manipulation have been practiced for thousands of years across cultures. Chinese use of massage dates to 1600 BC, and Hippocrates made reference to the importance of physicians being experienced with "rubbing" as early as 400 BC. There are references to massage in ancient records of the Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman nations. References to massage are also found in the Bible and the Vedas. Terms for massage include the French word masser , the Greek word for "knead," a Hindu word for "press," and an Aramaic word that means "to press softly." The technique that is currently called Swedish massage was developed in the 19th Century by Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839) as a combined form of massage and gymnastic exercises. Many different therapeutic techniques can be classified as massage therapy. Most involve the application of fixed or moving pressure or manipulation of the muscles/connective tissues of clients. Practitioners may use their hands or other areas such as forearms, elbows, or feet. Lubricants may be added to aid the smoothness of massage strokes. Techniques used in Swedish massage include (1) superficial stroking in a direction away from the heart or deep stroking towards the heart; (2) kneading in a circular pattern using fingers and thumbs; (3) deep muscle stimulation; (4) rhythmic movements such as slapping or tapping; and (5) vibration. Sports massage is similar to Swedish massage but is adapted specifically for athletes. Classical massage aims to provide calmness, relaxation, encourage self-healing, and revitalization. Many other variations and styles of massage or touch exist, often developed in specific geographic regions. Scientific research of massage is limited, and existing studies use a variety of techniques and trial designs. Firm evidence-based conclusions about the effectiveness of massage cannot be drawn at this time for any health condition.
Reflexology is an alternative therapy that involves the application of pressure to targeted areas of the hands, feet, and ears.