If you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin or it can't use the insulin it makes.
Your body uses insulin to move glucose (sugar) from the blood into the cells. Your cells then use that sugar for energy. Without insulin, sugar stays in your blood. Over time, high blood sugar levels raise your risk of serious health problems such as kidney disease and blindness. You are also at high risk of heart disease.
You can manage your diabetes and live a healthy life. Your goal is to keep your blood sugar levels within a target range. This can lower your risk of complications from the disease. Your doctor can tell you what your blood sugar target is. Most likely, you will need to test your blood sugar regularly to make sure you're meeting your goal. Ask your doctor about how often you should test. Be sure you know how to use your testing equipment so results are accurate.
You'll also need to keep your "diabetes ABCs" close to their targets. Your doctor will be able to tell you what these are for you.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) suggests the following for most people:
- A for A1C: below 7 percent. The hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) test shows what your average blood sugar levels have been for the past two to three months. Hemoglobin A1C is measured in percentages. Your doctor may give you a personalized goal depending on your age, risk of low blood sugar and whether you have complications. If you are younger and healthier, your doctor may want your A1C levels between 6 and 7. Otherwise he or she may want your levels between 7 and 8.
- B for blood pressure: below 140/80. People with high blood pressure may have a goal of less than 140/80. Blood pressure is the force of blood that travels through your arteries. High blood pressure can lead to heart or blood vessel disease.
- C for cholesterol: LDL below 100 mg/dL. Cholesterol is a fatty substance (lipids) in your blood. High levels of LDL can put you at risk of heart disease.
How to meet your goals
Your diabetes treatment strategy will be unique to you. But you can expect your doctor to discuss the need for a nutritious diet and exercise. Many people will be asked to lose weight. Others also need to take medication.
Your doctor will tailor a care plan to meet your needs. He or she will monitor you to make sure the plan is working. Follow your treatment plan exactly as prescribed.
Reach or maintain a healthy weight. Weight and diabetes seem to be linked. About 80 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. If you're in that category, lowering your weight by even 5 percent can help you manage your diabetes. That's only 10 pounds for a 200-pound person. Studies show that a 5 percent loss can lower insulin resistance and blood pressure. It can also improve blood sugar and cholesterol levels. (For people with prediabetes, that same weight loss can delay or prevent diabetes.)
Have a healthy diet. Your diet should focus on the same foods as any other healthy diet: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein and low-fat and fat-free dairy. Limit foods high in saturated fats, sodium and added sugars. Avoid trans fats. Be especially careful with sugar-sweetened drinks.
Figuring out what - and when - to eat can be tricky. For example, some people may need to count carbohydrates. The ADA suggests that all people with diabetes seek nutritional counseling. A registered dietitian can work with you to create a meal plan that you will enjoy and stick with.
It's important to be consistent. Your blood sugar could dip too low if you skip meals.
Exercise regularly. Exercise helps your body respond better to insulin. It also lowers blood pressure and cholesterol and aids in weight loss.
Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week. Try to spread that over at least three days. Resistance training also has shown benefits for controlling diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to try to do strength training at least twice a week, if it's safe for your situation. Start slowly. You can gradually increase the amount of activity you do as you get in better shape.
Check with your doctor before you start or increase your activity level. Ask if there are any exercises or activities that are unsafe for you. You may be advised to eat before exercising or keep emergency glucose sources handy.
Take medications and insulin as prescribed. You may need medication to help control your diabetes, blood pressure or cholesterol. You may also need to take insulin if your body cannot make enough. Your doctor can explain your options. But be aware that some people can manage diabetes without medication.
All parts of your care plan work together to help you meet your diabetes goals. Even if you take medication, you'll need to eat right and exercise. Pay attention to other aspects of your lifestyle, too. Don't smoke. Limit alcohol. Take care of your dental and mental health.
Managing diabetes is a lifelong endeavor. But if you make healthy choices and take care of yourself, you'll handle it in stride.
Created on 06/26/2002
Updated on 04/01/2013
- National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Your guide to diabetes: Type 1 and type 2.
- American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(Suppl1).
- National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Diabetes overview.