vitamin e (generic name)
a vitamin - treats Atherosclerosis, Seizure disorder, Steatohepatitis, Respiratory infection prevention, Osteoarthritis, Parkinson's disease, P...
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SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Skin reactions such as contact dermatitis and eczema have been reported with topical vitamin E preparations, such as ointments or vitamin E containing-deodorants. Individuals with known or suspected hypersensitivity to vitamin E should avoid these products.
Side Effects and Warnings
Recent evidence suggests that regular use of high-dose vitamin E may increase the risk of death (from "all causes") by a small amount. These conclusions have been criticized by some experts because they are based on re-calculations (meta-analyses) of the results of prior smaller studies, which were of mixed quality, with variable results, and often in patients with chronic illnesses. Nonetheless, this is the best available scientific evidence currently, and therefore chronic use of vitamin E should be used cautiously and high-dose vitamin E should be avoided. Acute overdose of vitamin E is very uncommon.
For short periods of time, vitamin E supplementation is generally considered safe at doses up to the recommended tolerable upper intake level (UL). However, vitamin E is possibly unsafe when used orally at doses exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) obtained through food consumption is considered to be safe and beneficial.
Skin reactions, such as contact dermatitis and eczema, have been reported with topical vitamin E preparations, such as ointments or vitamin E containing-deodorants.
In rare cases, vitamin E supplementation has been associated with abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, diarrhea, or flu-like symptoms (particularly when taken at high doses). The risk of necrotizing enterocolitis may be increased with large doses of vitamin E.
In rare cases, vitamin E supplementation has been associated with gonadal dysfunction and diminished kidney function.
High doses of vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding, due to inhibition of platelet aggregation and antagonism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (particularly in patients with vitamin K deficiency). In studies of vitamin E, a small increase in rate of hemorrhagic (bleeding) stroke and gum bleeding has been observed, particularly which used in humans with aspirin. Increased risk of bleeding when used with warfarin (Coumadin®) has been noted in animal studies. However, other studies have not observed a greater incidence of bleeding. Bleeding has been observed in patients given high repeated doses of intravenous all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E). Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
In rare cases, vitamin E supplementation has been associated with dizziness, fatigue, headache, weakness, or blurred vision (particularly when used in high doses).
Oral vitamin E should be avoided in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, as is does not appear to slow visual decline, and may be associated with more rapid loss of visual acuity, although the validity of this finding has been questioned.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Many prenatal vitamins contain small amounts of vitamin E. Natural forms of vitamin E may be preferable to synthetic forms.
Use beyond the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) level in otherwise healthy pregnant women is generally not recommended. There is otherwise insufficient evidence regarding the safety of higher doses of oral, topical, or injected vitamin E during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and therefore it is not recommended.