vitamin E (generic name)
a vitamin - treats Atherosclerosis, Seizure disorder, Steatohepatitis, Respiratory infection prevention, Osteoarthritis, Parkinson's disease, P...
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TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Abortifacient, acne, aging (prevention), aging skin, air pollution protection, allergies, amiodarone pulmonary toxicity prevention, bee stings, benign prostatic hypertrophy, beta-thalassemia, blood disorders (porphyria), breast pain/inflammation (mastitis), bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants, bursitis, cardiomyopathy, chemotherapy extravasation, chorea (chronic progressive hereditary), congestive heart failure, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, dermatitis, diaper rash, digestive enzyme/pancreatic insufficiency, doxorubicin hair loss prevention, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dyspraxia, energy enhancement, frostbite, gastric ulcer, granuloma annulare (topical vitamin E), hair loss, heart attack, transplant rejection prevention (heart), hereditary spherocytosis, Huntington's disease, hypertension, impotence, inflammatory skin disorders, leg cramps, liver spots, lung cancer prevention, male fertility, menopausal symptoms, menstrual disorders, miscarriage, mucositis, muscle strength, myotonic dystrophy, neuromuscular disorders, nitrate tolerance, oral leukoplakia, labor pain, peptic ulcers, physical endurance, poor posture, post-operative recovery (post-angioplasty restenosis prevention), pre-eclampsia prevention (high blood pressure in pregnancy), radiation-induced fibrosis, reperfusion injury protection during heart surgery, restless leg syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, skeletal muscle damage, skin disorders, sperm motility, sunburn, thrombophlebitis (vein inflammation).
Dietary Sources of Vitamin E
Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables (such as spinach), meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils (corn, cottonseed, safflower, soybean, sunflower), argan oil, olive oil, wheat germ oil, and whole grains. Cooking and storage may destroy some of the vitamin E in foods.
Adults (over 18 years old)
Most individuals in the United States are believed to obtain sufficient vitamin E from dietary sources, although individuals with very low-fat diets or intestinal malabsorption disorders may require supplementation. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin E are provided in Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE) to account for the different biological activities of the various forms of vitamin E, as well as in International Units (IU), which food and supplement labels often use. For conversion, 1 milligram ATE = 1.5 IU. The RDA for men or women older than 14 years old is 15 milligrams (or 22.5 IU); for pregnant women of any age is 15 milligrams (or 22.5 IU); and for breastfeeding women of any age is 19 milligrams (or 28.5 IU).
For adults older than 18 years, the tolerable upper limit of dosing for supplementary alpha-tocopherol recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine is 1,000 milligrams per day (equivalent to 1,500 IU). This limit recommendation is not altered during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Treatment of vitamin E deficiency should be under medical supervision, tailored to the underlying cause of the deficiency, and may include either oral or injected vitamin E. If the cause is due to chronic malnutrition and there is no evidence of malabsorption, an oral dose that is between 2-5 times greater than the RDA may be considered. If the cause is malabsorption that cannot be corrected, then injections of vitamin E may be necessary. Dosing recommendations vary by the underlying cause.
No specific dosing of vitamin E has been established for other conditions, and there is recent evidence suggesting possible adverse health effects of long-term use of daily supplementation with 400 IU or greater daily. Although controversial, the use of long-term vitamin E supplementation should be approached cautiously until further evidence from prospective clinical trials is available. Various doses and durations have been evaluated in clinical trials, although many have not been proven as effective or safe. Patents are recommended to discuss the choice of dosing and duration with a licensed healthcare professional.
Children (under 18 years old)
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin E are provided in Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE) to account for the different biological activities of the various forms of vitamin E, as well as in International Units (IU), because food and supplement labels often use this system. For conversion, 1 milligram ATE = 1.5 IU. There is no RDA for infants, but there is a recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for healthy breastfeeding infants ages 0-6 months old of 4 milligrams per day (6 IU), and for infants ages 7-12 months old of 5 milligrams per day (7.5 IU). The RDA for children ages 1-3 years old is 6 milligrams per day (9 IU); for ages 4-8 years old is 7 milligrams per day (10.5 IU); for ages 9-13 years old is 11 milligrams per day (16.5 IU); for ages greater than 14 years old is 15 milligrams per day (22.5 IU); for pregnant women of any age is 15 milligrams (22.5 IU); and for breastfeeding women of any age is 19 milligrams (28.5 IU).
An upper limit for infants up to 12 months of age has not been established. The tolerable daily upper limit of dosing for ages 1-3 years old is 200 milligrams (300 IU); for ages 4-8 years old is 300mg (450 IU); for ages 9-13 years old is 600 milligrams (900 IU); and for ages 14-18 is 800 milligrams (1,200 IU).
Treatment of vitamin E deficiency should be under medical supervision, tailored to the underlying cause of the deficiency, and may include either oral or injected vitamin E. Selected doses in specific conditions are noted above under adult dosing. Vitamin E absorption may improve if given with meals, and in small doses.
No specific dosing of vitamin E has been well established for other conditions.