sandalwood (generic name)

treats Anxiety and Alertness
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Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

Although not well studied in humans, the sandalwood constituent alpha-santalol may induce apoptosis (cell death), and thus may interact with anticancer agents. Sandalwood may also have antifungal properties and caution is advised in patients taking antifungal agents.

Based on preliminary human study, application of the sandalwood oil constituent alpha-santalol on patients' skin may have a relaxing/sedative effect. Combined use of anxiolytics with sandalwood may result in additive effects.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Although not well studied in humans, the sandalwood constituent alpha-santalol may induce apoptosis (cell death), and thus may interact with anticancer agents. Sandalwood may also have antifungal properties and caution is advised in patients taking antifungal agents.

Based on preliminary human study, application of the sandalwood oil constituent alpha-santalol on patients' skin may have a relaxing/sedative effect. Combined use of anxiolytics with sandalwood may result in additive effects.

Attribution

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): J. Kathryn Bryan, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

An S, Lee AY, Lee CH, et al. Fragrance contact dermatitis in Korea: a joint study. Contact Dermatitis 2005;53(6):320-323.

Buchbauer G, Stappen I, Pretterklieber C, et al. Structure-activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odor of tricyclo beta-santalol. Eur J Med Chem 2004;39(12):1039-1046.

Buchbauer G, Sunara A, Weiss-Greiler P, et al. Synthesis and olfactoric activity of side-chain modified beta-santalol analogues. Eur J Med Chem 2001;36(7-8):673-683.

Frosch PJ, Johansen JD, Menne T, et al. Further important sensitizers in patients sensitive to fragrances. Contact Dermatitis 2002;47(5):279-287.

Girgenti P, Suss L. [Repellent activity against Aedes aegypti (L.) of formulas based on natural vegetable extracts or synthetic active agents]. Ann.Ig 2002;14(3):205-210.

Grigor'eva VD, Dashina TA, Iur'eva EA, et al. [Balneological use of bath concentrate containing xidifon and essential oils from ginger, nutmeg, and sandal]. Vopr.Kurortol.Fizioter.Lech.Fiz Kult. 2001;(6):35-36.

Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 1998;42(5):591-595.

Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Buchbauer G. East Indian Sandalwood and alpha-santalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in humans. Planta Med 2006;72(9):792-800.

Hongratanaworakit T, Heuberger E, Buchbauer G. Evaluation of the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol on humans after transdermal absorption. Planta Med 2004;70(1):3-7.

Kaur M, Agarwal C, Singh RP, et al. Skin cancer chemopreventive agent, {alpha}-santalol, induces apoptotic death of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Carcinogenesis 2005;26(2):369-380.

Kyle G. Evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing levels of anxiety in palliative care patients: results of a pilot study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006;12(2):148-155.

Larsen W, Nakayama H, Fischer T, et al. A study of new fragrance mixtures. Am J Contact Dermat. 1998;9(4):202-206.

Larsen W, Nakayama H, Lindberg M, et al. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part I). Am J Contact Dermat. 1996;7(2):77-83.

Masago R, Matsuda T, Kikuchi Y, et al. Effects of inhalation of essential oils on EEG activity and sensory evaluation. J Physiol Anthropol.Appl.Human Sci 2000;19(1):35-42.

Sugawara Y, Hino Y, Kawasaki M, et al. Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma. Chem Senses 1999;24(4):415-421.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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