This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Tamara Milkin, PharmD (Northeastern University); Elizabeth Poole, PharmD (Drug Information Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
Axelrod L, Camuso J, Williams E, et al. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Diabetes Care 1994;17(1):37-44.
Burton-Freeman B, Davis PA, Schneeman BO. Interaction of fat availability and sex on postprandial satiety and cholecystokinin after mixed-food meals. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(5):1207-1214.
Clore JN, Stillman JS, Li J, et al. Differential effect of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on hepatic glucose metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol.Metab 2004;287(2):E358-E365.
Dworatzek PD, Hegele RA, Wolever TM. Postprandial lipemia in subjects with the threonine 54 variant of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene is dependent on the type of fat ingested. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(6):1110-1117.
Eyjolfson V, Spriet LL, Dyck DJ. Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(5):814-820.
Gradek WQ, Harris MT, Yahia N, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids acutely suppress antibodies to malondialdehyde-modified lipoproteins in patients with vascular disease. Am J Cardiol 4-1-2004;93(7):881-885.
Kaji K, Yoshida S, Nagata N, et al. An open-label study of administration of EH0202, a health-food additive, to patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(9):873-878.
Loo WT, Cheung MN, Chow LW. The inhibitory effect of a herbal formula comprising ginseng and carthamus tinctorius on breast cancer. Life Sci. 11-26-2004;76(2):191-200.
Nordstrom DC, Honkanen VE, Nasu Y, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol.Int. 1995;14(6):231-234.
Park Y, Jones PG, Harris WS. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein margination: a potential surrogate for whole-body lipoprotein lipase activity and effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(1):45-50.
Radack K, Deck C, Huster G. The effects of low doses of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1991;151(6):1173-1180.
Rallidis LS, Paschos G, Papaioannou ML, et al. The effect of diet enriched with alpha-linolenic acid on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 2004;174(1):127-132.
Simopoulos, AP. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants. Biol Res 2004;37(2):263-277.
Wilt TJ, Lofgren RP, Nichol KL, et al. Fish oil supplementation does not lower plasma cholesterol in men with hypercholesterolemia. Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Ann Intern Med 12-1-1989;111(11):900-905.
Zhang Q, Peng JH, Zhang XN. [A clinical study of Safflower Yellow injection in treating coronary heart disease angina pectoris with Xin-blood stagnation syndrome.]. Chin J Integr.Med 2005;11(3):222-225.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.