red yeast rice (generic name)
a nutraceutical product - treats High cholesterol, Coronary heart disease, and Diabetes
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Top Learning Centers(Recursos en Español)
This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Ethan Basch, MD (Harvard Medical School); Julie Conquer, PhD (RGB Consulting); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Cathi Dennehey, PharmD (University of California, San Francisco); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Peter Glickman, MD (Harvard Medical School); Paul Hammerness MD (Harvard Medical School); Jenna Hollenstein, MS, RD (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Richard Liebowitz, MD (Duke University); Michael Smith, MRPharmS, ND (Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine); David Sollars, MAc, HMC (New England School of Acupuncture); Philippe Szapary, MD (University of Pennsylvania); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Kirstin Wadewitz, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Cicero AF, Rovati LC, Setnikar I. Eulipidemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. A single-blind clinical investigation. Arzneimittelforschung 2007;57(1):26-30.
Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, et al. An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7(2):133-139.
Huang CF, Li TC, Lin CC, et al. Efficacy of Monascus purpureus Went rice on lowering lipid ratios in hypercholesterolemic patients. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007 Jun;14(3):438-40.
Li JJ, Hu SS, Fang CH, et al. Effects of xuezhikang, an extract of cholestin, on lipid profile and C-reactive protein: a short-term time course study in patients with stable angina. Clin Chim Acta 2005;352(1-2):217-224.
Liu BH, Wu TS, Su MC, et al. Evaluation of citrinin occurrence and cytotoxicity in Monascus fermentation products. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(1):170-175.
Liu L, Zhao SP, Cheng YC, et al. Xuezhikang decreases serum lipoprotein(a) and C-reactive protein concentrations in patients with coronary heart disease. Clin Chem 2003;49(8):1347-1352.
Man RY, Lynn EG, Cheung F, et al. Cholestin inhibits cholesterol synthesis and secretion in hepatic cells (HepG2). Mol Cell Biochem 2002;233(1-2):153-158.
Prasad GV, Wong T, Meliton G, et al. Rhabdomyolysis due to red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) in a renal transplant recipient. Transplantation 2002;74(8):1200-1201.
Smith DJ, Olive KE. Chinese red rice-induced myopathy. South Med J 2003;96(12):1265-1267.
SoRelle R. Appeals Court says Food and Drug Administration can regulate Cholestin. Circulation 2000;102(7):E9012-E9013.
Wei W, Li C, Wang Y, et al. Hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic effects of long-term Cholestin (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, red yeast rice) in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Nutr Biochem 2003;14(6):314-318.
Yang HT, Lin SH, Huang SY, et al. Acute administration of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) depletes tissue coenzyme Q(10) levels in ICR mice. Br J Nutr 2005;93(1):131-135.
Zhao SP, Liu L, Cheng YC, et al. Effect of xuezhikang, a cholestin extract, on reflecting postprandial triglyceridemia after a high-fat meal in patients with coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis 2003;168(2):375-380.
Zhao SP, Liu L, Cheng YC, et al. Xuezhikang, an extract of cholestin, protects endothelial function through antiinflammatory and lipid-lowering mechanisms in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 2004;110(8):915-920.
Zhao SP, Lu ZL, Du BM, et al. Xuezhikang, an extract of cholestin, reduces cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease: subgroup analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes from China coronary secondary prevention study (CCSPS). J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;49(2):81-4.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.