pantethine (generic name)

treats Cystinosis, Athletic performance, Hyperlipidemia, and Ischemic heart disease
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Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

Bile acid sequestrant, bis-pantothenamidoethyl disulfide, calcium pantothenate (CaP), coenzyme Q10, carnitine, cyproheptadine, cysteamine, D-pantethine, pantetheine, pantetheinase, Pantetina, panthenol, pantomin, pantosin, pantothenic acid, sulfopantetheine, vitamin B5.

Background

Pantethine is a naturally occurring compound and the active form of pantothenic acid. Structurally, pantethine is a disulfide form of pantothenic acid; it is metabolized to coenzyme A. Pantethine received its name from the Greek word pantos, which means "everywhere" because it was in a wide variety of foods such as fish, legumes, organ meats, whole grains, and yogurt.

Research has demonstrated that pantethine, when taken by mouth, can be used for lowering cholesterol. It is also used for lowering cardiovascular risk, improving energy, improving adrenal function, and preventing allergy symptoms in people allergic to formaldehyde. Reliable evidence on pantethine for enhancing exercise performance is lacking.

Pantethine is believed to have lipid-modulating properties. It has been used to help convert fat and carbohydrates to energy. Pantethine has also been used to support adrenal function and act as an anti-stress aid.

Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol): Numerous trials have examined the effects of pantethine taken by mouth on lipids. Reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides have occurred, however, additional study is needed in this area to confirm these findings.
Grade: B

Ischemic heart disease: Data has shown pantethine exhibits lipid-modulating effects. Additional human study is needed.
Grade: C

Athletic performance: Preliminary study does not suggest that pantethine is helpful in athletic performance. These preliminary negative results cannot be confirmed without more studies.
Grade: D

Cystinosis: Cystinosis is a hereditary dysfunction of the renal (kidney) tubules characterized by the presence of carbohydrates and amino acids in the urine, excessive urination, and low blood levels of potassium ions and phosphates, and caused by the abnormal metabolism of cystine and the accumulation of cystine crystals in tissues. Preliminary research does not show any benefit for oral pantethine in the treatment of cystinosis.
Grade: D

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Adaptation to stress, adrenal cortex function, alcoholism and Parkinson's, anorexia, antianorectic activity, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, chronic hepatopathies (diseases of the liver), coronary disease, diabetic neuropathies (disease of nervous system), infantile nephropathic cystinosis (autosomal recessive disorder), inhibition of lens opacification during the early stages of cataract formation, seborrheic states of the scalp.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older):

There is no proven effective dose for pantethine. Pantethine is generally well tolerated. Most studies for hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol) have used doses of 600-900 milligrams by mouth daily. However, up to 1,200 milligrams in divided doses has been taken by mouth.

As an injection into the muscle, 400 milligrams has been given daily. Injections should only be given under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.

Children (younger than 18 years):

There is no proven effective dose for pantethine in children. However, 900-1,200 milligrams daily for three to six months has been studied in children for the treatment of hypolipoproteinemia (low cholesterol). Pantethine is generally well tolerated.

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