Artichoke (generic name)

treats Alcohol-induced hangover, Antioxidant, Dyspepsia, Irritable bowel syndrome, Choleretic, and Lipid-lowering
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Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

Artichoke may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).

There are multiple published reports of cholesterol-lowering effects of artichoke, although the quality of most studies is not sufficient to form a clear conclusion in this area. Artichoke may add to the cholesterol-lowering effects of other agents.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

Artichoke may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.

There are multiple published reports of cholesterol-lowering effects of artichoke, although the quality of most studies is not sufficient to form a clear conclusion in this area. Therefore, artichoke may add to the lipid-lowering effects of other agents, such as fish oil, garlic, or niacin.

Attribution

This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Heather Boon, B.Sc.Phm, PhD (University of Toronto); Ashley Brigham, PharmD (Northeastern University); Joan Engebretson, DrPH, RN (University of Texas); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Ernest B. Hawkins, MS, BSPharm (Health Education Resources, Inc.); Charles Holmes, MD (Harvard Medical School); Michael Smith, M.R.PharmS, ND (Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Heeja Yoon, PharmD (Drake University).

Bibliography

DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

Betancor-Fernandez A, Perez-Galvez A, Sies H, et al. Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55(7):981-986.

Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, et al. Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and improves quality of life in otherwise healthy volunteers suffering from concomitant dyspepsia: a subset analysis. J Altern.Complement Med 2004;10(4):667-669.

Franck P, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Morisset M, et al. Anaphylactic reaction to inulin: first identification of specific IgEs to an inulin protein compound. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136(2):155-158.

Holtmann G, Adam B, Haag S, et al. Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: a six-week placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 2003;18(11-12):1099-1105.

Jimenez-Escrig A, Dragsted LO, Daneshvar B, et al. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-27-2003;51(18):5540-5545.

Li H, Xia N, Brausch I, Yao Y, et al. Flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) up-regulate endothelial-type nitric-oxide synthase gene expression in human endothelial cells. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2004;310(3):926-932.

Lopez-Molina, D., Navarro-Martinez, M. D., Rojas-Melgarejo, F., Hiner, A. N., Chazarra, S., and Rodriguez-Lopez, J. N. Molecular properties and prebiotic effect of inulin obtained from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Phytochemistry 2005;66(12):1476-1484.

Lupattelli G, Marchesi S, Lombardini R, et al. Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia. Life Sci 12-31-2004;76(7):775-782.

Miralles JC., Garcia-Sells J, Bartolome B, et al. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91(1):92-95.

Pittler MH, White AR, Stevinson C, et al. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 12-9-2003;169(12):1269-1273.

Valerio F, De Bellis P, Lonigro SL, et al. In vitro and in vivo survival and transit tolerance of potentially probiotic strains carried by artichokes in the gastrointestinal tract. Appl Environ.Microbiol. 2006;72(4):3042-3045.

Visioli F, Bogani P, Grande S, et al. Local food and cardioprotection: the role of phytochemicals. Forum Nutr 2006;59:116-129.

Wang M, Simon JE, Aviles IF, et al. Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J Agric.Food Chem. 1-29-2003;51(3):601-608.

Wittemer SM, Ploch M, Windeck T, et al. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids after oral administration of Artichoke leaf extracts in humans. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(1-2):28-38.

Zhu XF, Zhang HX, Lo R. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts. Fitoterapia 2005;76(1):108-111.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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