bis-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (generic name)
treats Multiple myeloma and Hepatitis B
Table of Contents
Top Learning Centers(Recursos en Español)
Interactions with Drugs
Two toxic deaths, both attributable to neutropenia and sepsis, were reported in a phase II trial studying spirogermanium in combination with 5-fluorouracil. Significant toxicity has occurred and caution is advised.
Ge-132 (germanium sesquioxide) may enhance morphine analgesia in humans following both oral and intraperitoneal injection. Caution is advised.
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Insufficient available evidence.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Ethan Basch, M.Sc (Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Heather Boon, BScPhm, PhD (University of Toronto); Mary Giles, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Dana A. Hackman, BS (Northeastern University); David Kiefer, MD (Bastyr University, University of Washington); Cathy DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Lisa Scully, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Kristopher Swinney, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy - Worcester); Isabell Sylesky, PharmD (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Shannon Welch, PharmD (Northeastern University).
BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
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Hirayama C, Suzuki H, Ito M, et al. Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38(6):525-532.
Ishiwata Y, Yokochi S, Hashimoto H, et al. Protection against concanavalin A-induced murine liver injury by the organic germanium compound, propagermanium. Scand.J Immunol. 1998;48(6):605-614.
Kaplan BJ, Andrus GM, Parish WW. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(2):345-348.
Kaplan BJ, Parish WW, Andrus GM, et al. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: I. Chemistry and anticancer properties. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(2):337-344.
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Long QC, Zeng GX, Zhao XL. Pharmacokinetics of germanium after po beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide in 24 Chinese volunteers. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1996;17(5):415-418.
Luck BE, Mann H, Melzer H, et al. Renal and other organ failure caused by germanium intoxication. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 1999;14(10):2464-2468.
Mainwaring MG, Poor C, Zander DS, et al. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest 2000;117(2):591-593.
Ming X, Yin H, Zhu Z. [Effect of dietary selenium and germanium on the precancerous lesion in rat glandular stomach induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine]. Zhonghua Wai Ke.Za Zhi. 1996;34(4):221-223.
Shamir M, Sprung CL. [Fatal multiple organ system dysfunction associated with germanium metal used in complementary therapy]. Harefuah 11-16-1997;133(10):446-7, 502.
Tao SH, Bolger PM. Hazard assessment of germanium supplements. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 1997;25(3):211-219.
Tsutsumi Y, Tanaka J, Kanamori H, et al. Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur.J Haematol. 2004;73(6):397-401.
Unakar NJ, Tsui J, Johnson M. Effect of pretreatment of germanium-132 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and galactose cataracts. Curr Eye Res. 1997;16(8):832-837.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.