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comfrey (generic name)

an herbal product - treats Pain, Myalgia, and Inflammation
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DISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

Altamirano JC, Gratz SR, Wolnik KA. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in commercial comfrey-containing products and botanical materials by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int 2005;88(2):406-412.

Barbakadze VV, Kemertelidze EP, Targamadze IL, et al. [Novel biologically active polymer of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid from two types of the comphrey Symphytum asperum and S. caucasicvum (Boraginoceae)]. Bioorg.Khim. 2002;28(4):362-366.

Barthomeuf CM, Debiton E, Barbakadze VV, et al. Evaluation of the dietetic and therapeutic potential of a high molecular weight hydroxycinnamate-derived polymer from Symphytum asperum Lepech. Regarding its antioxidant, antilipoperoxidant, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. J Agric.Food Chem 2001;49(8):3942-3946.

Dasgupta A. Review of abnormal laboratory test results and toxic effects due to use of herbal medicines. Am J Clin Pathol 2003;120(1):127-137.

Di Mambro VM, Fonseca MJ. Assays of physical stability and antioxidant activity of a topical formulation added with different plant extracts. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2-23-2005;37(2):287-295.

Gray DE, Porter A, O'Neill T, et al. A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root. J AOAC Int 2004;87(5):1049-1057.

Karavaev VA, Solntsev MK, Iurina TP, et al. [Antifungal activity of aqueous extracts from the leaf of cowparsnip and comfrey]. Izv.Akad.Nauk Ser.Biol 2001;(4):435-441.

Koll R, Buhr M, Dieter R, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of a comfrey root extract (Extr. Rad. Symphyti) in the treatment of ankle distorsions: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(6):470-477.

Kucera M, Barna M, Horacek O, et al. Topical symphytum herb concentrate cream against myalgia: a randomized controlled double-blind clinical study. Adv Ther 2005;22(6):681-692.

Kucera M, Barna M, Horacek O, et al. Efficacy and safety of topically applied Symphytum herb extract cream in the treatment of ankle distortion: results of a randomized controlled clinical double blind study. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2004;154(21-22):498-507.

Mei N, Guo L, Fu PP, et al. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver. Br J Cancer 3-14-2005;92(5):873-875.

Oberlies NH, Kim NC, Brine DR, et al. Analysis of herbal teas made from the leaves of comfrey (Symphytum officinale): reduction of N-oxides results in order of magnitude increases in the measurable concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Public Health Nutr 2004;7(7):919-924.

Predel HG, Giannetti B, Koll R, et al. Efficacy of a comfrey root extract ointment in comparison to a diclofenac gel in the treatment of ankle distortions: results of an observer-blind, randomized, multicenter study. Phytomedicine 2005;12(10):707-714.

Schaneberg BT, Molyneux RJ, Khan IA. Evaporative light scattering detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Phytochem.Anal. 2004;15(1):36-39.

Thornfeldt C. Cosmeceuticals containing herbs: fact, fiction, and future. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):873-880.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

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