Coleon U-quinone coleus, coleonol, Coleus amboinicus Lour (CA), Coleus barbatus Benth, Coleus blumei, Coleus blumei Benth, Coleus carnosifolius, Coleus galeatus, Coleus kilimandschari, Coleus parvifolius, Coleus scutellarioides, coleus solenostemon rotundifolius, Coleus xanthanthus, colforsin, colforsin daropate hydrochloride, forscolin, forskoditerpenoside A, forskoditerpenoside B, forskolin, forskolin G, forskolin H, HL 362, FSK88, Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), L-75-1362B, NKH477, Plectranthus barbat us, Plectranthus forskohlii, rosmarinic acid, rosmarinic acid, xanthanthusin E, xanthanthusins F-K.
Coleus species have been used in the Asian traditional medicine to treat angina, asthma, bronchitis, epilepsy, insomnia, skin rashes, and a wide range of digestive problems. Since the 1970s, research was predominantly concentrated on forskolin, a root extract of Coleus forskohlii. Early study suggests that forskolin may have clinical use in treating heart, lung and eye conditions.
Although most studies have used the isolated forskolin extract, it is believed that the whole coleus plant may be more effective, due to the presence of multiple compounds that may act synergistically. Generally, coleus appears to be well tolerated with few adverse effects.
There is a lack of sufficient data to recommend for or against the use of coleus in the treatment of bronchial asthma.
Forskolin may improve heart function in patients with cardiomyopathy. However, additional study is needed to confirm these findings.
Some evidence suggests that coleus improves glaucoma. More studies are needed.
Anti-inflammatory action after cardiopulmonary bypass:
There is a lack of sufficient data to recommend for or against the use of coleus, to patients recovering after cardiopulmonary bypass, for its anti-inflammatory effects.
Breast milk stimulant:
Coleus has been used as a breast milk stimulant for hundreds of years, however, the traditional use has not been well documented and scientific evidence is limited.
Breathing aid for intubation:
Pretreatment with coleus before intubation may be beneficial, especially for middle-aged smokers. More research is needed.
Forskolin may enhance smooth muscle relaxation. More study is needed to assess the use of coleus in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
There is no proven safe or effective dose for coleus. Many natural medicine experts recommend 50 milligrams of coleus extract (18% forskolin), taken 1-3 times daily by mouth, although the safety or efficacy of these doses has not been demonstrated. A dose of 250 milligrams of less-concentrated coleus extract (1% forskolin) taken 1-3 times daily has also been commonly used. As a dried root, 6-12 grams daily has been used, and as a fluid extract, 6-12 milliliters daily has been used.
Colforsin daropate 0.5-0.75mcg/kg-1/min-1 has been used for its anti-inflammatory action after cardiopulmonary bypass and to aid in airway resistance after tracheal intubation. Although coleus has been studied for depression, schizophrenia, cardiomyopathy and glaucoma, no commercially available products have been proven safe for these uses.
There is no proven safe or effective dose for coleus in children.
Coleus is generally regarded as safe, although long-term safety data are lacking. Inhalation of forskolin may cause sore throat, upper respiratory tract irritation, mild to moderate cough, tremor, or restlessness. Coleus eye drops may produce a milky covering over the eyes.
Coleus may lower blood sugar and stimulate the thyroid gland. Use cautiously in patients with thyroid disorders. Also use cautiously in diabetic patients. Colenol, a compound isolated from coleus, stimulates insulin release.
Theoretically, coleus may increase the risk of bleeding. Use cautiously in patients with a history of bleeding, hemostatic disorders or drug-related hemostatic problems. Discontinue use in patients at least two weeks prior to surgical or dental procedure, due to risk of bleeding. Avoid use in patients with active bleeding.
Use cautiously in patients with low blood pressure or those at risk for hypotension. Also use cautiously in patients with heart disease or asthma.
Avoid during pregnancy due to possibility of abortifacient (abortion inducing) effects.
Coleus is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. It is unknown if coleus is excreted in the breast milk.
Although not well studied in humans, forskolin may interact with antidepressants, antihistamines, blood pressure altering agents, asthma medications, beta-blockers, inotropic agents or thyroid medications. It may also interact with drugs used for cancer and weight loss, or drugs that are processed through the liver.
Coleus should be used cautiously when taken concurrently with agents that are dependent on pH and gastric action for breakdown and activation such as newer cephalosporin antibiotics, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and warfarin.
Although not well studied in humans, topical forskolin may significantly reduce intra-ocular pressure (IOP). When used with other medications that decrease IOP, it may result in additive effects.
Colenol, a compound isolated from coleus, stimulates insulin release and its use with blood sugaring lowering agents or exogenous insulin may result in additive effects.
Although not well studied in humans, forskolin may interact with antidepressants, antihistamines, blood pressure altering agents, asthma agents, heart agents, inotropic agents or thyroid medications. It may also interact with herbs or supplements used for cancer and weight loss, or drugs that are processed through the liver.
Although not well studied in humans, topical forskolin may significantly reduce intra-ocular pressure (IOP). When used with other herbs or supplements that decrease IOP, it may result in additive effects.
Colenol, a compound isolated from coleus, stimulates insulin release, and its use with blood sugar lowering herbs or supplements, such as bitter melon, may result in additive effects.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Chi Dam, PharmD (Northeastern University); Cathy DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Dana A. Hackman, BS (Northeastern University); Jo Hermans, PhD (University of Leiden, the Netherlands); Tamara Milkin, PharmD (Northeastern University); Phuong Ngo, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Erica Seamon, PharmD (Nova Southeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Mamta Vora, PharmD (Northeastern University); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Lisa Wendt, PharmD (Albany College of Pharmacy); Jen Woods, BS (Northeastern University).