cascara sagrada (generic name)

a laxative - treats Bowel cleansing and Constipation
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Herbs & Supplements

Synonyms

Aloe, aloe-emodin, amerikanische faulbaumrinde, amerikanische faulbaum, anthracene glycosides, anthranoid, anthraquinone, anthroid, anthrone C-glycosides, Artemisia scoparia, ayapin, bearberry bark, bearwood, bitter bark, California buckthorn, carminic acid, casanthranol, cascara buckthorn, cascara fluid extract aromatic, cascara liquid extract, cascararinde, cascara sagrada, cascara sagrada (dried bark), cascara sagrada extract, cascara sagrada fluid extract (bitter cascara), cascarosides, cassia, cassia senna, chittem bark, coffee tree, dihydroxy-anthraquinones, dihydroxy-anthrones, dihydroxy-dianthrones, dogwood bark, emodin, fimbriatone, Frangula purshiana, nepodin, parietin, Persian bark, phytoestrogens, Polygonaceae, purshiana bark, pursh's buckthorn, Rhamnaceae (family), Rhamni purshianae cortex, Rhamnus purshiana, rhein, rheum, sacred bark, sagrada bark, Sagradafaulbaum (German), vegetable laxatives, wahoo plant, xanthoria elegans, yellow bark.

Background

Cascara is obtained from the dried bark of Rhamnus purshianus (Rhamnaceae), both a medicinal and poisonous plant. It is found in Europe, western Asia, and in North America from northern Idaho to the Pacific coast in mountainous areas. In Spanish, cascara sagrada means "sacred bark," perhaps because this woody shrub has provided relief for several constipated individuals. Cascara has been used as a tree bark laxative by Native American tribes and Spanish and Mexican priests since the 1800s. The cascara sagrada bark is aged for a year so that the active principles become milder, as freshly dried bark produces too strong a laxative for safe use.

Cascara possesses purgative, toxic, therapeutic, and tonic activity. It is most commonly used as an anthraquinone stimulant laxative for bowel cleansing. Stimulant and cathartic laxatives are the most commonly abused laxatives and have the potential for causing long-term damage.

Evidence

DISCLAIMER: These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Bowel cleansing: Early studies have examined the use of cascara for bowel preparation. Evidence is insufficient to suggest effectiveness over conventional treatments for this indication.
Grade: C

Constipation: Cascara sagrada is widely accepted as a mild and effective treatment for chronic constipation. However, limited data is available. Additional study is needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Grade: C

Tradition

WARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Abdominal pain, anal fissures, analgesic (pain reliever), antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral (herpes simplex virus II and vaccinia virus), cholagogue (promotes bile flow), dyspepsia (upset stomach), emetic (induces vomiting), flavoring agent, gallstones, hemorrhoids, immunosuppression, leukemia, liver disease, spleen problems, sunscreen, urinary stones.
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