bilberry (generic name)
an herbal product - treats Atherosclerosis, Diabetes mellitus, Painful menstruation, Diarrhea, Cataracts, Glaucoma, Retinopathy, Fibrocystic br...
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TraditionWARNING: DISCLAIMER: The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Age-related macular degeneration, angina (chest pain), angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, antiviral, arthritis, bleeding gums, burns, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chemoprotectant, chronic fatigue syndrome, common cold, cough, dermatitis, dysentery (severe diarrhea), edema (swelling), encephalitis (tick-borne), eye disorders, fevers, gout (painful inflammation), heart disease, hematuria (blood in the urine), hemorrhoids, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, kidney disease, lactation suppression, laxative (fresh berries), leukemia, liver disease, macular degeneration, oral ulcers, pharyngitis, poor circulation, retinitis pigmentosa, scurvy, skin infections, sore throat, stomach upset, tonic, urine blood, urinary tract infection, varicose veins of pregnancy, vision improvement.
Adults (18 years and older)
Fresh berries 55 to 115 grams three times daily or 80 to 480 milligrams of aqueous extract three times daily by mouth (standardized to 25% anthocyanosides) have been used traditionally.
Dried fruit 4 to 8 grams by mouth with water two times per day has been used traditionally, or decoction of dried fruit by mouth three times per day (made by boiling 5 to 10 grams of crushed dried fruit in 150 milliliters of water for 10 minutes and straining while hot), or cold macerate of dried fruit by mouth three times per day (made by soaking dried crushed fruit in 150 milliliters of water for several hours). Experts have warned that patients should use dried bilberry preparations because the fresh fruit may actually worsen diarrhea.
Some experts recommend using a mouthwash gargle of 10% dried fruit decoction as needed for mucus membrane inflammation.
Children (younger than 18 years)
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the use of bilberry in children.
SafetyDISCLAIMER: Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
People with allergies to plants in the Ericaceae family or to anthocyanosides may have reactions to bilberry. However, there is a lack of reliable published cases of serious allergic reactions to bilberry.
Side Effects and Warnings
Bilberry is generally believed to be safe in recommended doses for short periods of time, based on its history as a foodstuff. There is a lack of known reports of serious toxicity or side effects, although if taken in large doses, there is an increased risk of bleeding, upset stomach, or hydroquinone poisoning.
Based on human use, bilberry fresh fruit may cause diarrhea or have a laxative effect. Based on animal studies, bilberry may cause low blood sugar levels. Caution is therefore advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a healthcare provider and medication adjustments may be necessary.
In theory, bilberry may decrease blood pressure, based on laboratory studies.
With the use of bilberry leaf extract, there is a theoretical increased bleeding risk, although there are no reliable published human reports of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders, taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding, or prior to some surgeries and dental procedures.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend the safe use of bilberry in pregnancy or breastfeeding, although eating bilberry fruit is believed to be safe based on its history of use as a foodstuff. One study used bilberry extract to treat pregnancy-induced leg swelling (edema), and no adverse effects were reported.