Aegelenine, aegeline, Aegle marmelos, allocryptopine, alloimperatorin methyl ether, aurapten, β-sitosterol, bael, bael tree, bel, beli, Bengal quince, betulinic acid, bilva, bilwa, butyl p-tolyl sulfide, butylated hydroxyanisole, dimethoxy coumarin, essential oil, ethyl phosphonic acid diethyl ester, hexachloro ethane, Indian bael, lupeol, luvangetin, marmelide, marmelosin, marmenol, marmesin, methyl linoleate, montanine, palmitic acid, praealtin D, psoralen, rues, Rutaceae (family), rutacées, rutaretin, rutin, scopoletin, Shivadume, shivaphala, skimmianine, sripal, tannic acid, tannins (condensed), trans-cinnamic acid, umbelliferone, valencic acid, vilvam, wood apple, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol.
Indian bael, a native plant of India, has spread over wide areas of southeast Asia. The ripe fruit and unripe fruit, as well as the roots, leaves and branches have all been used in traditional medicine. In Ayurveda, the ripe fruit has been used for chronic diarrhea and dysentery, as a tonic for the heart and brain, and as adjuvant treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the roots has been used to treat melancholia, intermittent fevers, and palpitations; the roots have mainly been used as an ingredient of the Ayurvedic medicine, dashmool. The leaves have been given as a febrifuge, and as a poultice for the treatment of eye disorders and ulcers; and administration of fresh leaves has been used for weakness of the heart, dropsy, and beriberi.
A survey showed that in 2001-2002 in a Himalayan region (State of Uttaranchal, Indian Republic), vaidyas (practitioners of Ayurveda) used Indian bael as an ingredient in respective herbal formulations for boils, dysentery, earaches, discharge from the ears, and fever/cold.
There are very few available human studies evaluating bael fruit for any condition, although Indian bael has been studied in animals and laboratory studies.
Indian bael has traditionally been used as a treatment for diarrhea. However, capsules of dried powder of the unripe fruit were not effective in treating diarrhea in patients with shigellosis. Additional study investigating different preparations of bael fruit would help confirm this finding.
There is no proven safe or effective dose for bael fruit. Traditionally, individuals have taken 2-12 grams of the fruit powder, 28-56 milliliters of a bael decoction, or 12-20 milliliters of an infusion by mouth.
There is no proven safe or effective dose for bael fruit for children, and use is not recommended.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to Indian bael.
In general, there is a lack of available safety reports on Indian bael. Based on traditional use, Indian bael may be safe when used in the traditional manner and the fresh, ripe fruit is taken by mouth, or when preparations of the pulp are taken in a drink (e.g., nectar, squash) or jam. Avoid dosages that exceed those used in traditional medicine.
Although not well studied in humans, large quantities of Indian bael may result in digestive complaints and constipation. It may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking thyroid hormones, herbs for thyroid disorders, or herbs that may exacerbate or induce hyperthyroidism, should use caution.
Indian bael is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Indian bael leaves have been traditionally used to induce abortion and to sterilize women.
Indian bael, as extracts of the leaves or seeds, may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Although not well studied in humans, Indian bael may interact with thyroid hormones or anti-thyroid drugs. Caution is advised.
Indian bael, as extracts of the leaves or seeds, may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Although not well studied in humans, Indian bael may interact with thyroid extracts or anti-thyroid herbs or supplements. Caution is advised.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Ashley Brigham, PharmD (Northeastern University); Phillip A. Fong, PharmD; Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).
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