Alpha-carotene, Antarctic krill, AST, Astacarox®, astaxanthin-amino acid conjugate, astaxanthin diester, astaxanthin dilysinate tetrahydrochloride, ASX, Atlantic salmon, basidiomycete yeast, beta-carotene, BioAstin®, canthaxanthin, canthoxanthin, Cardax®, carotenoid, crayfish, crustaceans, DDA, disodium disuccinate astaxanthin, E161j, Euphausia superba, gamma-tocopherol, green microalgae, Haematococcus algae extract, Haematococcus pluvialis, krill, lutein, lycopene, meso-astaxanthin, microalgae, non-esterified astaxanthin, non-provitamin A carotenoid, ovoester, Phaffia rhodozyma, red carotenoid, retinoid, salmon, shrimp, sockeye salmon, tetrahydrochloride dilysine astaxanthin salt, tomato, trout, wild salmon, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, xanthophylls.
Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll, which is a carotenoid pigment, and can be found in microalgae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, crustaceans, and the feathers of some birds. Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga and one of the richest sources of natural astaxanthin, was reviewed and cleared for marketing by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 1999 as a new dietary ingredient by means of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) (21 CRF part 190.6).
Astaxanthin is most commonly used as an antioxidant and may be beneficial in decreasing the risks of certain chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Astaxanthin may also be effective in carpal tunnel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, muscle strength and endurance, high cholesterol (LDL oxidation), musculoskeletal injuries, and male infertility.
Astaxanthin has been used as a feed supplement and food coloring additive for salmon, crabs, shrimp, chickens, and egg production. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, astaxanthin is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used as a color additive in salmon foods to obtain the desired pink to orange-red color.
Carpal tunnel syndrome:
There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of astaxanthin for carpal tunnel syndrome. Additional study is needed in this area.
High cholesterol (LDL oxidation):
There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of astaxanthin for LDL oxidation prevention. More research is needed to make a firm recommendation.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of astaxanthin for male fertility. Additional study is needed in this area.
Astaxanthin may have positive effects on muscle strength. Better-quality trials are needed before a recommendation can be made.
Astaxanthin does not appear effective for muscle injury prevention. Additional study is needed before a firm recommendation can be made.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of astaxanthin for rheumatoid arthritis. More study is warranted in this area.