astaxanthin diphosphate (generic name)
treats Male infertility, Rheumatoid arthritis, Carpal tunnel syndrome, High cholesterol, Musculoskeletal injuries, and Muscle strength
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BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Anderson ML. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):17-26.
Bertram JS, Vine AL. Cancer prevention by retinoids and carotenoids: independent action on a common target. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 5-30-2005;1740(2):170-178.
Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15(4):401-412.
Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr 2004;134(1):257S-261S.
Comhaire FH, El Garem Y, Mahmoud A, et al. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial. Asian J Androl 2005;7(3):257-262.
Coral-Hinostroza GN, Ytrestoyl T, Ruyter B, et al. Plasma appearance of unesterified astaxanthin geometrical E/Z and optical R/S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3'R/S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters. Comp Biochem Physiol C.Toxicol Pharmacol 2004;139(1-3):99-110.
Daubrawa F, Sies H, Stahl W. Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts. J Nutr 2005;135(11):2507-2511.
Hussein G, Nakamura M, Zhao Q, et al. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28(1):47-52.
Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, et al. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod 2006;69(3):443-449.
Lockwood SF, Gross GJ. Disodium disuccinate astaxanthin (Cardax): antioxidant and antiinflammatory cardioprotection. Cardiovasc.Drug Rev 2005;23(3):199-216.
Mason RP, Walter MF, McNulty HP, et al. Rofecoxib increases susceptibility of human LDL and membrane lipids to oxidative damage: a mechanism of cardiotoxicity. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;47 Suppl 1:S7-14.
Nir Y, Spiller G, Multz C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:489.
Nir Y, Spiller G, Multz C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:490.
Teo IT, Chui CH, Tang JC, et al. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells. Int J Mol Med 2005;16(5):931-936.
Vine AL, Bertram JS. Upregulation of connexin 43 by retinoids but not by non-provitamin A carotenoids requires RARs. Nutr Cancer 2005;52(1):105-113.