The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below. Ankylosing spondylitis, anxiety, asthma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bronchitis, chronic lung conditions, circulation problems, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, emphysema, fibromyalgia, gastritis, gout, hemiplegia, hemophilia, improving concentration, increasing energy, kidney disorders, low back pain, lowering heart rate, multiple sclerosis (MS), neurasthenia, peripheral vascular disease, repetitive strain injuries, schizophrenia, self-esteem, substance abuse, tuberculosis.
Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
Adverse effects of tai chi are rarely reported and may include sore muscles or sprains. Tai chi should be avoided by people with severe osteoporosis or joint problems, acute back pain, sprains, or fractures. Advancing too quickly while studying tai chi may increase the risk of injury.
Tai chi instructors sometimes recommend that practice be avoided during active infections, right after a meal, or when very tired. Some believe that visualization of energy flow below the waist during menstruation may increase menstrual bleeding. Straining downwards or holding low postures should be avoided during pregnancy and by people with inguinal hernias. Some tai chi practitioners believe that practicing for too long or using too much intention may direct the flow of chi (qi) inappropriately, possibly resulting in physical or emotional illness.
Tai chi should not be used as a substitute for more proven therapies for potentially serious conditions. Individuals should consult a qualified healthcare professional if they experience dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, headache, or severe pain while practicing tai chi.
This information is based on a professional level monograph edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): William Collinge, PhD, MPH (Collinge & Associates); Dawn Costa, BA, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); David Lee, PharmD (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy); Katie Nummy, BS (Northeastern University); Shaina Tanguay-Colucci, BS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Wendy Weissner, BA (Natural Standard Research Collaboration).