TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive technique in which a low-voltage electrical current is delivered through w...
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BibliographyDISCLAIMER: Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Brosseau L, Milne S, Robinson V, et al. Efficacy of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis. Spine 2002;27(6):596-603.
Carroll D, Moore RA, McQuay HJ, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens) for chronic pain (Cochrane review). Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2001;(4.)
Chandran P, Sluka KA. Development of opioid tolerance with repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation administration. Pain 2003;102(1-2):195-201.
Gadsby G, Flowerdew M. Nerve stimulation for low back pain--a review. Nurs Stand 1997;11(43):32-33.
Ghoname EA, White PF, Ahmed HE, et al. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: an alternative to TENS in the management of sciatica. Pain 1999;83(2):193-199.
Hsieh RL, Lee WC. One-shot percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: comparison of therapeutic effects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2002;81(11):838-843.
Johansson BB, Haker E, von Arbin M, et al. Acupuncture and transcutaneous nerve stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 2001;32(3):707-713.
Mannheimer C, Carlsson CA, Vedin A, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in angina pectoris. Pain 1986;26(3):291-300.
Milne S, Welch V, Brosseau L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;2:CD003008.
Munhoz RP, Hanajima R, Ashby P, et al. Acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on tremor. Mov Disord 2003;18(2):191-194.
Osiri M, Welch V, V, Brosseau L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for knee osteoarthritis (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;4:CD002823.
Peters EJ, Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, et al. Electric stimulation as an adjunct to heal diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82(6):721-725.
Price CIM, Pandyan AD. Electrical stimulation for preventing and treating post-stroke shoulder pain (Cochrane review). Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2001;(4):CD001698.
Proctor ML, Smith CA, Farquhar CM, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (last updated 2002-02-28) 2002;(4):CD002123.
Zarate E, Mingus M, White PF, et al. The use of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation for preventing nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg 2001;92(3):629-635.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.