What Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating
anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event.
The event may involve a real or perceived threat of injury or death. This can
include a natural disaster, combat, an assault, physical or sexual abuse, or
People with PTSD have a heightened sense of danger. Their
natural fight-or-flight response is damaged, causing them to feel stressed or
fearful, even in safe situations.
Once called “shell shock” or “battle fatigue,” PTSD has
received public attention recently because of the high number of war veterans with
the disorder. But PTSD can happen to anyone at any age. It occurs as a response
to chemical changes in the brain after exposure to threatening events. PTSD is
not the result of a character flaw or weakness.
What Are the Symptoms of PTSD?
Symptoms of PTSD can disrupt your normal activities and your
ability to function. Symptoms can be triggered by words, sounds, or situations that
remind you of trauma. According to the National
Institute of Mental Health, symptoms fall into the following groups:
- flashbacks, in which it feels as if the event is
occurring over and over
- vivid, intrusive memories of the event
- frequent nightmares about the event
- mental or physical discomfort when reminded of
- emotional apathy
- lack of interest in daily activities
- memory loss of the actual event
- inability to express feelings
- avoidance of people or situations that are reminders of the event
Arousal and Reactivity
- difficulty concentrating
- startling easily and having exaggerated response to startling events
- constant feeling of being on guard
- bouts of anger
- difficulty falling or staying asleep
Cognition and Mood
negative thoughts about yourself
- distorted feelings of guilt, worry, or blame
- trouble remembering the event
- decreased interest in once enjoyable activities
In addition, people with PTSD may experience depression and panic
attacks. Panic attacks can cause:
- a racing or pounding heart
How Is PTSD Diagnosed?
There is no specific test to diagnose PTSD. The condition can
be difficult to diagnose because people with the disorder may be reluctant to
recall or discuss the trauma or their symptoms. A mental health specialist is
best qualified to diagnose PTSD. These specialists include psychiatrists,
psychologists, and psychiatric nurse practitioners.
Diagnosis of PTSD requires experiencing all of the following
for one month or longer:
- at least one re-experience symptom
- at least one avoidance symptom
- at least two arousal and reactivity symptoms
- at least two cognition and mood symptoms
Your symptoms must be serious enough to interfere with daily
activities. These activities include going to work or school, or being around
friends and family members.
When to Seek Help for PTSD
If you’re experiencing symptoms of PTSD, remember that you’re
not alone. According to the U.S.
Department of Veterans Affairs, 8 million adults have PTSD in a given year.
If you have frequent upsetting thoughts, are unable to
control your actions, or fear that you might hurt yourself or others, seek help
How Is PTSD Treated?
If you are diagnosed with PTSD, your doctor will likely
prescribe a combination of therapies, including:
behavioral therapy, or “talk therapy,” to encourage you to remember the traumatic
event and to express your feelings about it. This can help desensitize you to
the trauma and reduce your symptoms.
groups, where you can discuss your feelings with other people who have PTSD.
This will help you realize that your symptoms are not unusual and that you’re
such antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, and sleep aids, to decrease
the frequency of intrusive and frightening thoughts and to help you get some
rest. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two antidepressants
for the specific treatment of PTSD: sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil).
Many people who suffer from PTSD turn to illicit drugs and
alcohol to cope with their symptoms. While these methods may temporarily
alleviate your symptoms of PTSD, they don’t treat the underlying cause of
stress. They can even make some symptoms worse. If you have trouble with substance
abuse, your therapist may also recommend a 12-step program to reduce your
dependency on drugs or alcohol.
Psychotherapy is an important tool to help you cope with
PTSD symptoms. It can help you identify symptom triggers, manage your symptoms,
and face your fears. Support from friends and family is helpful too.
Learning about PTSD will help you understand your feelings
and how to effectively deal with them. Living a healthy lifestyle and taking
care of yourself will also help with your PTSD. Make sure to eat a
well-balanced diet, get enough rest and exercise, and avoid anything that can
make stress or anxiety worse.
There are support groups for PTSD all over the country and
most likely in your area. You can find one with a quick Internet search, or by
using one of the following resources:
Veterans GroupsU.S. Department of Veteran AffairsVet Life Community
Other PTSD Support Groups
What Is the Outlook for People with PTSD?
If you have PTSD, early treatment can help alleviate your symptoms.
It can also give you effective strategies for coping with intrusive thoughts,
memories, and flashbacks. Through therapy, support groups, and medication, you can
get on the road to recovery. Always keep in mind that you’re not alone.