Blood glucose monitoring
Testing your blood sugar level is one of the best ways to understand your
diabetes and how different foods, medications, and activities affect your
diabetes. Keeping track of your blood glucose can help you and your doctor make
a plan to manage this condition.
People use portable blood glucose meters, called glucometers, to check their
blood sugar levels. These work by analyzing a small amount of blood, usually
from a fingertip. The glucometer lightly pricks your skin to obtain the blood. Meters
tell you your current blood sugar, but since blood sugar levels change, you
need to test levels often and record them.
You can get blood glucose monitoring kits and supplies from:
- your doctor’s office
- a diabetes educator’s office
- a pharmacy
- online stores
You can discuss the price with your doctor or pharmacist. Glucose meters
come with testing strips, small needles, or lancets, to prick your finger, and
a device to hold the needle. The kit may include a logbook or you might be able
to download the readings onto your computer.
Meters vary in cost and size. Some have added features to suit different
needs and preferences. These may include:
- audio capabilities for people with vision impairment
- backlit screens to help you see them in low light
- additional memory or data storage
- preloaded test strips for people who have difficulty using
- USB ports to load information directly to a computer
are the benefits of blood glucose monitoring?
Regular glucose monitoring is one of the ways people with diabetes can learn
more about their condition. When it’s time to make important decisions about
medication dosage, exercise, and diet, knowing your blood glucose levels will
be a major help for you, your doctor, and the rest of your healthcare team. By
checking your blood glucose levels routinely, you’ll also know when your blood
sugar is too high or too low, both of which can cause symptoms and serious
Your doctor will calculate the target range for your blood glucose based on
your age, your type of diabetes, your overall health, and other factors. It’s
important to keep your glucose levels within your target range as best as you
can. High blood sugar levels can lead to long-term complications if you don’t
get treatment, such as:
- heart disease
- nerve damage
- vision problems
- poor blood flow
- kidney disease
Low blood sugar levels can cause symptoms as well. The severity of these varies
between different people. Some symptoms of low blood sugar include:
Low blood sugar can also lead to serious, severe complications, such as seizures
are the risks of blood glucose monitoring?
Risks from the blood glucose test are minimal and much lower than the risks
of not monitoring your blood sugar levels.
If you share insulin needles and testing supplies with someone else, you’re
at an increased risk of spreading certain illnesses, such as
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis C
You should never share needles or finger-stick devices for any reason.
to prepare for blood glucose monitoring
Before checking your blood glucose levels, make sure that you have:
- a finger-stick device to prick your finger, such as a
- an alcohol swab to sterilize the puncture site
- a blood glucose monitor
- a bandage for if bleeding continues beyond a few drops
Also, depending on the type of test you’re taking, you may need to adjust
your meal schedule or time it around your meal depending on your doctor’s instructions.
is blood glucose monitoring performed?
Before you begin, wash your hands thoroughly to prevent infection at the
finger-prick site. If you use alcohol wipes instead of washing, be sure to let
the site dry completely before testing.
Next, put a testing strip into the meter. Prick your finger with the lancet
to get a small drop of blood. Use the sides of the fingertips instead of the
tip itself to decrease finger discomfort.
The blood goes on the test strip that you’ve inserted into the meter. Your
monitor will analyze the blood and give you the blood glucose reading on its
digital display usually within a minute.
Finger pricks rarely require a bandage, but you may want to use one if
bleeding continues beyond a few drops. It’s important to follow all the
instructions that came with your glucometer to ensure accurate results.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you may need to test your blood glucose three
or more times per day. This includes before and after meals and exercise, and
more often when you are sick.
If you have type 2 diabetes, your doctor will let you know when and how
often to test your blood glucose.
results of blood glucose monitoring
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College
of Endocrinology recommends that you keep fasting and premeal glucose values at
less than 110
milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) and that you keep two-hour post-meal
values under 140 mg/dL.
These are general guidelines. Ask your doctor about your target levels.
Regular blood glucose monitoring may feel like a hassle, but it’s an
essential tool to help you take control of your diabetes. By identifying and
recording changes in your blood sugar levels, you’ll have more information
about how food, exercise, stress, and other factors affect your diabetes.