Your blood is made up of acids and bases. The amount of acids and
bases in your blood can be measured on a pH scale. It’s important to maintain
the correct balance between acids and bases. Even a slight change can cause
health problems. Normally, your blood should have a slightly higher level of
bases than acids.
Alkalosis occurs when your body has too many bases. It can occur
due to decreased blood levels of carbon dioxide, which is an acid. It can also
occur due to increased blood levels of bicarbonate, which is a base.
This condition may also be related to other underlying health
issues, such as low potassium, or hypokalemia. The earlier it’s detected and
treated, the better its outcome is.
The Five Types of Alkalosis
There are five main types of alkalosis.
Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there
isn’t enough carbon dioxide in your bloodstream. It’s often caused by:
- hyperventilation, which commonly
occurs with anxiety
- high fever
- lack of oxygen
- salicylate poisoning
- being in high altitudes
- liver disease
- lung disease
Metabolic alkalosis develops when your body
loses too much acid or gains too much base. This can be attributed to:
- excess vomiting, which causes a loss
- overuse of diuretics
- adrenal disease
- a large loss of potassium or sodium
in a short amount of time
- accidental ingestion of bicarbonate,
which can be found in baking soda
- alcohol abuse
Hypochloremic alkalosis occurs when there’s
a significant decline of chloride in your body. This can be due to prolonged
vomiting or sweating. Chloride is an important chemical needed to maintain
balance in bodily fluids, and it’s an essential part of your body’s digestive
Hypokalemic alkalosis occurs when your body
lacks the normal amount of the mineral potassium. You normally get potassium
from your food, but potassium deficiency is rarely caused by not eating enough of
it. Kidney disease, excessive sweating, and diarrhea are just a few ways you
can lose too much potassium. Potassium is essential to the proper functioning
- nervous system
- digestive system
Symptoms of Alkalosis
Symptoms of alkalosis can vary. In the
early stages of the condition, you may have:
- prolonged muscle spasms
- muscle twitching
- hand tremor
If it isn’t treated right away, severe
symptoms can develop. These symptoms could lead to shock or coma. Call 911 or
go to the nearest emergency room if you experience any of these symptoms:
- difficulty breathing
The symptoms of alkalosis mimic symptoms of
other conditions. It’s very important that you don’t attempt to diagnose
yourself. Make an appointment with your doctor to get evaluated.
Your doctor will ask you about your medical
history and the symptoms you’ve been having. They will likely order tests that
will rule out other conditions. Common tests include:
- urine pH
- basic metabolic panel
- arterial blood gas analysis
According to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, normal blood pH levels are between 7.35 and 7.45. A blood pH above
7.45 may indicate alkalosis.
Your doctor may also want to measure the carbon
dioxide and oxygen levels in your blood to rule out respiratory issues.
Your treatment plan will depend on the
cause of your alkalosis. Your carbon dioxide level needs to return to normal if
you have respiratory alkalosis. If you have rapid breathing caused by anxiety,
taking slow, deep breaths can often improve symptoms and regulate your oxygen
level. If tests reveal that you have a low oxygen level, you’ll need to receive
oxygen through a mask.
If your rapid breathing is caused by pain,
then treating the pain will help bring your respiratory rate to normal and
improve your symptoms.
If your alkalosis is caused by a loss of
chemicals such as chloride or potassium, you’ll be prescribed medications or
supplements to replace these chemicals.
Some cases of alkalosis result from an
electrolyte imbalance, which may be corrected by drinking plenty of fluids or
drinks that contain electrolytes. If you have an advanced case of electrolyte
imbalance, it will need to be treated in the hospital.
Most people recover from alkalosis once
they get treatment.
How Do I Prevent Alkalosis?
Reduce your risk for developing alkalosis
by maintaining good health, eating a healthy diet, and staying hydrated. Choosing
foods high in nutrients and potassium can help combat electrolyte deficiencies.
Nutrients and potassium are primarily found in fruits and vegetables, such as:
Steps you can take to prevent dehydration
- drinking 8 to 10 glasses of water
- drinking water before, during, and
- using electrolyte-replacement drinks
for high-intensity exercises
- avoiding sodas or juices, which have
a high sugar content and can make dehydration worse
- limiting caffeine, which is found in
soda, tea, and coffee
It’s important to remember that you’re
already dehydrated if you feel thirsty.
Dehydration can also occur rapidly if you
lose a lot of electrolytes. This can happen when you’re vomiting from the flu.
If you cannot keep potassium-rich foods in your stomach, make sure you still
drink adequate fluids, such as water, sports drinks, and broth-based soups.
The outlook for alkalosis largely depends
on how soon it’s diagnosed. The sooner your condition is treated, the better
the outcome is for that condition. Alkalosis caused by existing kidney
conditions may not be preventable. It’s also important to follow all of your
doctor’s care instructions once you get a diagnosis.